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Search results “Australian biota seed dispersal examples”
Evolution of Australian Biota - 8.5.3.iv) & c) - Pollination, Seed Dispersal & Asexual Reproduction
 
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This video addresses the following syllabus dot-points from 'Evolution of Australian Biota': - describe some mechanisms found in Australian flora for: pollination, seed dispersal, asexual reproduction with reference to local (Australian) examples - plan, choose equipment or resources and perform a first-hand investigation to gather and present information about flowers of native species of angiosperms to identify features that may be adaptations for wind and insect/bird/mammal pollination
Views: 990 Khollis
Evolution of Australian Biota - 8.5.3.vii) - Advantages of Asexual Reproduction
 
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This video addresses the following syllabus dot-points from 'Evolution of Australian Biota': - describe the conditions under which asexual reproduction is advantageous, with reference to specific Australian examples
Views: 330 Khollis
Evolution of Australian Biota - 8.5.2.i), ii) & e) - Variation within Species
 
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This video addresses the following syllabus dot-points from 'Evolution of Australian Biota': - discuss examples of variation between members of a species - identify the relationship between variation within a species and the chances of survival of species when environmental change occurs - perform a first-hand investigation to gather information of examples of variation in at least two species of living organism
Views: 757 Khollis
Seed dispersal
 
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Seed dispersal is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant. Plants have limited mobility and consequently rely upon a variety of dispersal vectors to transport their propagules, including both abiotic and biotic vectors. Seeds can be dispersed away from the parent plant individually or collectively, as well as dispersed in both space and time. The patterns of seed dispersal are determined in large part by the dispersal mechanism and this has important implications for the demographic and genetic structure of plant populations, as well as migration patterns and species interactions. There are five main modes of seed dispersal: gravity, wind, ballistic, water and by animals. Some plants are serotinous and only disperse their seeds in response to an environmental stimulus. It can be measured using seed traps. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1420 Audiopedia
Plant Reproduction - Distribution of Seeds
 
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This short video provides examples of the reproductive organs of vascular plants and explains some plant adaptations for distributing seeds. This basic video is intended for students in introductory Biology.
Views: 252 Patrick Haney
Life on Earth - 8.4.4.iv) - Technology & Classification
 
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This video addresses the following syllabus dot-point from 'Life on Earth': - discuss, using examples, the impact of changes in technology on the development and revision of biological classification systems
Views: 376 Khollis
Why do Some Species Thrive in Cities?
 
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Urban development can be tough on wildlife. But some plants and animals are adapting to our cities in surprising ways. Thanks to squarespace.com for supporting this video. Go build a website! http://www.squarespace.com/minuteearth (use your 10% discount code: EARTH) Please support MinuteEarth on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth And subscribe! - http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 Thanks to our Patreon patrons: - Emil Kampp - @TodayIFoundOut1 - @AntoineCoeur ________________________ Created by Henry Reich Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth’s environment – in just a few minutes! ________________________ References: Cheptou, P., Carrue, O., Rouifed, S., and Cantarel, A. (2008) Rapid evolution of seed dispersal in an urban environment in the weed Crepis sancta. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109: 3796–9. http://www.pnas.org/content/105/10/3796 DeCandido, R., Muir, A.A., & Gargiullo, M.B. (2004) A first approximation of the historical and extant vascular flora of New York City: implications for native plant species conservation. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 131:243–251. http://birdingbob.com/NYC.Flora.Final.Paper.pdf Donihue, C.M., and Lambert, M.R. 2014. Adaptive evolution in urban ecosystems, AMBIO 44(3): 194-203. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13280-014-0547-2 Fattorini, S. (2011) Insect extinction by urbanization: a long term study in Rome. Biological Conservation 144:370–375.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320710003952 Harris, S.E., Munshi-South, J., Obergfell, C., & O’Neill, R. (2013) Signatures of rapid evolution in urban and rural transcriptomes of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in the New York metropolitan area. PLoS One 8(8):e74938. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0074938 Tait, C.J., Daniels, C.B. & Hill, R.S. (2005). Changes in species assemblages within the Adelaide metropolitan area, Australia, 1836–2002. Ecology 15: 346-359. http://www.planta.cn/forum/files_planta/changes_in_species_assemblages_within_the_adelaide_metropolitan_area_australia_1836c2002_796.pdf. Wirgin, I., Roy, N.K., Loftus, M., Chambers, R.C., Franks, D.G. & Hahn, M.E., (2011) Mechanistic Basis of Resistance to PCBs in Atlantic Tomcod from the Hudson River, Science 331(6022): 1322-1325. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/331/6022/1322 White Footed Mouse photo by Melinda Fawver / Courtesy Shutterstock
Views: 1025295 MinuteEarth
Tree and plant life in the jungle - David Attenborough - BBC wildlife
 
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Want more natural history and wildlife videos? Visit the official BBC Earth channel: http://bit.ly/BBCEarthWW BBC Earth The BBC Earth YouTube channel is home to over 50 years-worth of the best animal videos from the BBC archive. With three new videos released every week there’s something for all nature loves from astounding animal behaviour to beautiful imagery. Click here to find our more: http://bit.ly/BBCEarthWW David Attenborough looks at how plants compete to get the most sunlight in thick tropical forest. From the BBC.
Views: 341728 BBC Studios
What is OCEANIAN REALM? What does OCEANIAN REALM mean? OCEANIAN REALM meaning & explanation
 
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What is OCEANIAN REALM? What does OCEANIAN REALM mean? OCEANIAN REALM meaning - OCEANIAN REALM definition - OCEANIAN REALM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ The Oceanian realm is one of the World Wildlife Fund-WWF biogeographic realms, and is unique in not including any continental land mass. It is the smallest in land area of the WWF realms. This realm includes the islands of the Pacific Ocean in: Micronesia, the Fijian Islands, the Hawaiian islands, and Polynesia (with the exception of New Zealand). New Zealand, Australia, and most of Melanesia including New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and New Caledonia are included within the Australasian realm. Oceania is geologically the youngest realm. While other realms include old continental land masses or fragments of continents, Oceania is composed mostly of volcanic high islands and coral atolls that arose from the sea in geologically recent times, many of them in the Pleistocene. They were created either by hotspot volcanism, or as island arcs pushed upward by the collision and subduction of tectonic plates. The islands range from tiny islets, sea stacks and coral atolls to large mountainous islands, like Hawaii and Fiji. The climate of Oceania's islands is tropical or subtropical, and range from humid to seasonally dry. Wetter parts of the islands are covered by Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, while the drier parts of the islands, including the leeward sides of the islands and many of the low coral islands, are covered by Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests and Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands. Hawaii's high volcanoes, Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, are home to some rare tropical Montane grasslands and shrublands. Since the islands of Oceania were never connected by land to a continent, the flora and fauna of the islands originally reached them from across the ocean (though at the height of the last ice age sea levels were much lower than today and many current seamounts were islands, so some now isolated islands were once less isolated). Once they reached the islands, the ancestors of Oceania's present flora and fauna adapted to life on the islands. Larger islands with diverse ecological niches encouraged floral and faunal adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species evolved from a common ancestor, each species adapted to a different ecological niche; the various species of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Family Drepanididae) are a classic example. Other adaptations to island ecologies include gigantism, dwarfism, and among birds, loss of flight. Oceania has a number of endemic species; Hawaii in particular is considered a global 'center of endemism', with its forest ecoregions having one of the highest percentages of endemic plants in the world. Land plants disperse by several different means. Many plants, mostly ferns and mosses but also some flowering plants, disperse on the wind, relying on tiny spores or feathery seeds that can remain airborne over long distances notably Metrosideros trees from New Zealand spread on the wind across Oceania. Other plants, notably coconut palms and mangroves, produce seeds that can float in salt water over long distances, eventually washing up on distant beaches, and thus Cocos trees are ubiquitous across Oceania. Birds are also an important means of dispersal; some plants produce sticky seeds that are carried on the feet or feathers of birds, and many plants produce fruits with seeds that can pass through the digestive tracts of birds. Pandanus trees are fairly ubiquitous across Oceania....
Views: 89 The Audiopedia
Australia's biodiversity: major features
 
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In the millions of years since Australia separated from Antarctica and drifted north, our continent's biodiversity has evolved mostly in isolation, while periodically taking on new 'passengers' from Asia. Dr Leo Joseph talks about the factors that have shaped Australia's unique biodiversity and how new technology is providing new insights into its evolution. (06:01) Access CSIRO's book Biodiversity: Science and Solutions for Australia - http://www.csiro.au/biodiversitybook Video transcript available here: http://www.csiro.au/news/transcripts/YouTubeTranscripts/2014/July/CH02-Leo-Joseph.html
Views: 9092 CSIRO
Pollination lesson with stop motion science animation for kids
 
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Ready for another? The wetland rap is gonna blow you away! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X33FX8pG-Dc -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Lucas Miller, the "singing zoologist," teaches about the interdependence of bees and flowering plants in a fun little stop-motion science video. Like it? Subscribe here and/or at lucasmiller.net for more fun, free science videos and songs. What's pollen and why is it important? What's the difference between pollen and nectar? Are bees just being helpful or is there something in it for them? You'll find out in this video and, hopefully, you'll laugh a little too. This was created using tools from The Edge of Imagination Station which will soon be available to YOU. Check out their channel at http://www.youtube.com/user/TheEofIS?feature=g-high-u Lucas' school author visits and family concerts are hilarious, educational and fun for kids AND their parents (imagine that!). Check him out at www.lucasmiller.net.
The Whole of AQA Geography Paper 1
 
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I want to help you achieve the grades you (and I) know you are capable of; these grades are the stepping stone to your future. Even if you don't want to study science or maths further, the grades you get now will open doors in the future. Get exam ready for GCSE Maths https://www.primrosekitten.com/pages/get-exam-ready-gcse-maths Get exam ready for GCSE science AQA https://www.primrosekitten.com/pages/get-exam-ready-gcse-science-aqa Edexcel https://www.primrosekitten.com/pages/get-exam-ready-gcse-science-edexcel To help you get even better grades I’ve written a lot of e-books, packed full of loads of excellent questions to help you study. Because the best thing you can do is practice. Visit my website for e-books, flashcards and extension questions https://www.primrosekitten.com Combined Science required practical book http://geni.us/DOshu Biology required practical book http://geni.us/2aGmjIL Chemistry required practical book http://geni.us/lepsNQ Physics required practical book http://geni.us/oeQPxAO Revision Guide for AQA Printed by Amazon http://geni.us/tEE3 Extended Revision Guide for AQA Printed by Amazon http://geni.us/j2VJY Revision Guide for Edexcel Printed by Amazon http://geni.us/qBugS Extended Revision Guide for Edexcel Printed by Amazon http://geni.us/uDhSd iGCSE Revision Guide for Edexcel Printed by Amazon http://geni.us/xM0QDz iGCSE Extended Revision Guide for Edexcel Printed by Amazon http://geni.us/ze3XKo3 What I’m Reading https://www.primrosekitten.com/collections/what-im-reading Suggested science reading that isn't subject specific https://www.primrosekitten.com/collections/awesome-science-reading Physics Reading List... https://www.primrosekitten.com/collections/reading-for-a-level-physics Biology Reading List... https://www.primrosekitten.com/collections/reading-for-a-level-biology Chemistry Reading list... https://www.primrosekitten.com/collections/reading-for-a-level-chemistry Some of the links in here are affiliate links, where is get a small percentage of any money spent, if you like my channel and want to support my work, clicking these is an easy way to do it. The 'whole of the topic in … minutes' videos DO NOT comprehensively cover everything you need to know for your exams. It would be impossible to include 2 years of teaching in 1 hour. These should NOT be your only source of revision https://youtu.be/K6d4oOq-pmU My exam predictions are just GUESSES!! I don't have any insider knowledge just years of looking at exam papers. Disclaimer; You should not carry out any of these practical’s without carrying out a full risk assessment of your own first. I am human, and I make mistakes, please point out any that you find and there is no need to follow that with a load of abuse. TuitionKit allows you to schedule your revision videos, mine and loads of other great YouTubers! http://bit.ly/2yYIxxG PhET Interactive Simulations University of Colorado Boulder https://phet.colorado.edu Music; Something Elated by Broke For Free. From the Free Music Archive, CC BY Images from; Classroom Core (TpT), Hidesy Clipart (TpT), The Cher Room (TpT), The Triple Point (TpT), Ninja Woman (TpT), The Painted Crew (TpT) Teacher's Clipart (TpT) Shutterstock By Alis Photo By CkyBe images from Shutterstock
Why is biodiversity so important? - Kim Preshoff
 
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View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/why-is-biodiversity-so-important-kim-preshoff Our planet’s diverse, thriving ecosystems may seem like permanent fixtures, but they’re actually vulnerable to collapse. Jungles can become deserts, and reefs can become lifeless rocks. What makes one ecosystem strong and another weak in the face of change? Kim Preshoff details why the answer, to a large extent, is biodiversity. Lesson by Kim Preshoff, animation by TED-Ed.
Views: 1039396 TED-Ed
What are interspecific and intraspecific interactions   Biology for All   FuseSchool
 
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1. The Lymphatic System 2. Intro to Cells: Animals & Plants 3. The Immune System Health and Drugs 4. Structure of the Leaf Plant Biology 5. Food Chains and Food Webs 6. Gas exchange in different animals 7. What is DNA 8. Ecosystem Management 9. Charles Darwin's Observations 10. Evidence for Natural Selection 11. What is the Menstrual Cycle 12. What is Blood 13. Transport in Cells: Active 14. Transport in Cells: Diffusion and Osmosis 15. What Is Environmental Sampling 16. What is Mitosis 17. What Is Aerobic Respiration 18. What is an ecosystem 19. Adapting and Living Together: Ecology and Ecosystems 20. Adapting and Living Together (alternative explanation 21. What is adaptation 22. Ecology: what is a niche 23. Ecology: Niches in the Savannah Ecosystem 24. The Niche of the Nuthatch 25. Ecology: Interspecific and Intraspecific Interactions 26. Adaptations of Predators and Prey 27. Adaptations of Camels 28. Adaptations of Plants and Extremophiles 29. What are Trophic Levels 30. Ecology: Generalists vs 31. Parasites and Hosts 32. Thinking like a parasite 33. Ecology: What Is Mutualism 34. Ecological Pyramids 35. What Is The Carbon Cycle - Part 2 Chemistry for All FuseSchool 36. What Is The Carbon Cycle - Part 1 37. The Nitrogen Cycle 38. What is the Water Cycle 39. What are fertilisers 40. What Is Eutrophication 41. Innate Behaviour 42. How Enzymes Denature 43. Sperm and Eggs Cells 44. What Is A Species? 45. The Differences Between Natural and Artificial 46. What Is Biodiversity 47. Genetics and Cell Division Keyword Definitions 48. What are nerve cells, neurons and synapses? 49. What are pathogens 50. Interactions within an ecosystem: including biotic and abiotic factors 51. What is urban ecology 52. Xylem and Phloem - Part 3 - Translocation - Transport in Plants 53. Xylem and Phloem - Part 2 - Transpiration - Transport in Plants 54. Xylem and Phloem - Transport in Plants 55. How are organisms classified? 56. What are hormones 57. What are interspecific and intraspecific interactions 58. How are pathogens spread and controlled 59. What Are White Blood 60. What Is Anaerobic Respiration 61. What Are Stem Cells 62. What Does The Stomach Do 63. What Is Cystic Fibrosis 64. Human Defence Systems Against Pathogens 65. What is organic farming 66. How Do Fossils Form 67. What Is Asexual Reproduction 68. What are Mendel and Genetic Crosses 69. The Evolution of Humans 70. Key Ecology Terms 71. The Pros and Cons of Organic Farming 72. The 5 Kingdoms in 73. What Are Chromosomes 74. What is a Reflex Arc 75. Selective Breeding 76. Structure of Bacteria 77. Mutations and Natural Selection 78. Formation of New Species by Speciation 79. Animal Classification 80. Why Does Biodiversity Matter To Me 81. What is RNA 82. Plant Hormones 83. What Are Vaccinations 84. What Is Cancer? 85. Punnett Squares 86. Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic: The 87. Mitosis - Stages of Mitosis 88. Fossils and Evidence for Evolution 89. Extinction of Species 90. Ecology: Producer Consumer Herbivore Carnivore Omnivore Insectivore Decomposer 91. Evolution by Natural Selection - Darwin's Finches 92. Codominance 93. Culturing Microorganisms Part 1 94. Competition and Natural Selection 95. Insulin and Glucagon 96. The Urinary System - An Introduction 97. How the Kidneys Remove Urea 98. What is Diabetes? 99. What is Homeostasis? 100. Temperature Regulation of the Human Body 101. Respiratory System - Introduction 102. Digestion - What Is It? 103. Anaerobic Respiration in the Muscles 104. Human impacts on Biodiversity 105. Protein Synthesis 106. Enzymes 107. Culturing Microorganisms pt2 108. Heartbeat and Pulse 109. Levels of organisation an organism 110. Biological Molecules 111. Anorexia and Eating Disorders 112. Sex Determination 113. Plant Classification 114. Seven Life Processes 115. Sexual Reproduction in Plants 116. The Structure of the heart 117. Sustainable development 118. What are viruses 119. Unicellular vs Multicellular 120. What are Antibodies 121. Making Yoghurt 122. Dangers of smoking 123. Antibiotics
Views: 531 Vijay S
The Extinct Ice Age Mammals of North America
 
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University of Washington Anthropology Professor Donald Grayson and recipient of the 2015 University Faculty Lecture Award delivers the University Faculty Lecture on April 28, 2016. Toward the end of the Ice Age, North America saw the extinction of an astonishing variety of often huge animals. Mammoths, mastodons, saber-toothed cats, lions, armadillos the size of small cars, sloths the size of elephants, beavers the size of bears, and many others were all gone by about 10,000 years ago. We do not know what caused these extinctions, but our knowledge of the Ice Age archaeology and paleontology of the deserts of western North America provides a novel opportunity to examine the common but contentious argument that people were behind all of them. Donald K. Grayson, professor, Department of Anthropology, UW 04/2/2016 http://washington.edu/boundless/digging-into-the-past/ http://uwtv.org
Views: 63595 UW Video
Chemtrails
 
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This week Reactions is taking science to the skies and checking out the chemistry behind chemtrails, or more accurately, contrails. It’s easy to look at the white trail behind a jet aircraft and imagine all manner of chemicals raining down from above. However, airplane contrails are simply what happens when the chemistry of burning jet fuel meets the chemistry of air. In this video, Reactions explains the straightforward chemistry of contrails Find us on all these places: Subscribe! http://bit.ly/ACSReactions Facebook! http://facebook.com/ACSReactions Twitter! http://twitter.com/ACSReactions Instagram! https://www.instagram.com/acsreactions/ Tumblr! http://acsreactions.tumblr.com/ Producer: Elaine Seward Writer: Alexa Billow Scientific consultants: Dan Billow, AMS James Donaldson, Ph.D. Kyle Nackers Music: Roberto Daglio - Bisbossa Sources: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp76-c3.pdf https://www.jeffreydonenfeld.com/blog/2013/03/living-and-working-at-the-amundsen-scott-south-pole-station-antarctica-summer-2012-2013/in-the-ice-tunnels-me-holding-a-thermometer-reading-60f-3/ https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/capital-weather-gang/wp/2016/08/16/scientists-to-world-chemtrails-are-not-real/?utm_term=.5c62652ebe21 https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/BGH/atmos.html https://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/apl/noise_emissions/contrails/ http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/8/084011 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bOtMizMQ6oM Ever wonder why dogs sniff each others' butts? Or how Adderall works? Or whether it's OK to pee in the pool? We've got you covered: Reactions a web series about the chemistry that surrounds you every day. Reactions is produced by the American Chemical Society.
Views: 78714 Reactions
From Supercontinents to Islands - Evolution in Motion
 
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Gonzalo Giribet, Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Curator of Invertebrate Zoology, and Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University The biological diversity found on an island is closely related to the history of its formation. Islands such as New Zealand, Tasmania, New Caledonia, and Madagascar formed when the supercontinents Pangea and Gondwana broke apart millions of years ago. These islands inherited organisms from their continents of origin, but in the process of becoming isolated, the organisms diversified in ways—and at rates—that were unique. Gonzalo Giribet will discuss the evolutionary processes at play on these continental islands. Series supported by a generous gift from Drs. Herman and Joan Suit April 28, 2016
What is NEOTROPICAL REALM? What does NEOTROPICAL REALM mean? NEOTROPICAL REALM meaning & explanation
 
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What is NEOTROPICAL REALM? What does NEOTROPICAL REALM mean? NEOTROPICAL REALM meaning - NEOTROPICAL REALM definition - NEOTROPICAL REALM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface. Physically, it includes the tropical terrestrial ecoregions of the Americas and the entire South American temperate zone. In biogeography, the Neotropic or Neotropical realm is one of the eight terrestrial realms. This realm includes South and Central America, and in North America the southern Mexican lowlands, the Caribbean islands, and southern Florida, because these regions share a large number of plant and animal groups. The realm also includes temperate southern South America. In contrast, the Neotropical Floristic Kingdom excludes southernmost South America, which instead is placed in the Antarctic kingdom. The Neotropic is delimited by similarities in fauna or flora. Its fauna and flora are distinct from the Nearctic (which includes most of North America) because of the long separation of the two continents. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama joined the two continents two to three million years ago, precipitating the Great American Interchange, an important biogeographical event. The Neotropic includes more tropical rainforest (tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests) than any other realm, extending from southern Mexico through Central America and northern South America to southern Brazil, including the vast Amazon Rainforest. These rainforest ecoregions are one of the most important reserves of biodiversity on Earth. These rainforests are also home to a diverse array of indigenous peoples, who to varying degrees persist in their autonomous and traditional cultures and subsistence within this environment. The number of these peoples who are as yet relatively untouched by external influences continues to decline significantly, however, along with the near-exponential expansion of urbanization, roads, pastoralism and forest industries which encroach on their customary lands and environment. Nevertheless, amidst these declining circumstances this vast "reservoir" of human diversity continues to survive, albeit much depleted. In South America alone, some 350–400 indigenous languages and dialects are still living (down from an estimated 1,500 at the time of first European contact), in about 37 distinct language families and a further number of unclassified and isolate languages. Many of these languages and their cultures are also endangered. Accordingly, conservation in the Neotropical realm is a hot political concern, and raises many arguments about development versus indigenous versus ecological rights and access to or ownership of natural resources.
Views: 826 The Audiopedia
April 2015 FDEP Mangrove Webinar
 
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This video is a webinar on mangroves, their ecological importance, and the regulatory process associated with trimming mangroves. This video covers mangrove distribution and identification of each Florida species. It covers their adaptations and their ecological importance. The video also gives a complete review of the 1996 Mangrove Trimming and Preservation Act (403.9321-403.9334, F.S.). This goes through definitions used in the Act, as well as all the criteria for exemptions, general permits, and individual permits. It summarizes how to become a professional mangrove trimmer, as well as discusses proper trimming techniques, and enforcement for violations of the mangrove act.
As the Seas Rise, Can We Restore Our Coastal Habitats?
 
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Steven Handel, Distinguished Professor of Ecology and Evolution, Rutgers University Visiting Professor in Landscape Architecture, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University As sea levels rise, the potential loss of coastal habitats is a threat across the globe. This is of particular concern in the eastern United States, where coastlines are largely developed and offer few open spaces for habitats to move inland if present natural lands are lost. Considering the current conditions of coastlines, as well as future development scenarios, Steven Handel will discuss strategies to help maintain our coastal character and the ecological services of coastal habitats that are critical to the social, cultural, and environmental well-being of our region. Presented by Harvard Museum of Natural History in collaboration with the Association to Preserve Cape Cod Recorded - February 27, 2018
Plant | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Plant Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). On one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin name for "green plants"), a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and may lose the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below). Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems, especially on land. Plants that produce grain, fruit and vegetables form humankind's basic foodstuffs, and have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses as ornaments, building materials, writing material and in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and drugs. The scientific study of plants is known as botany, a branch of biology.
Views: 48 wikipedia tts
Biota (taxonomy) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life 00:04:24 1 Definitions 00:05:17 1.1 Biology 00:07:39 1.1.1 Alternative definitions 00:09:01 1.1.2 Viruses 00:09:54 1.2 Biophysics 00:10:55 1.3 Living systems theories 00:11:53 1.3.1 Gaia hypothesis 00:12:52 1.3.2 Nonfractionability 00:13:50 1.3.3 Life as a property of ecosystems 00:14:47 1.3.4 Complex systems biology 00:16:18 1.3.5 Darwinian dynamic 00:17:04 1.3.6 Operator theory 00:17:52 2 History of study 00:18:02 2.1 Materialism 00:20:31 2.2 Hylomorphism 00:22:25 2.3 Spontaneous generation 00:23:30 2.4 Vitalism 00:25:13 3 Origin 00:32:47 4 Environmental conditions 00:34:02 4.1 Biosphere 00:38:04 4.2 Range of tolerance 00:39:13 4.3 Extremophiles 00:40:57 4.4 Chemical elements 00:42:18 4.4.1 DNA 00:46:33 5 Classification 00:46:42 5.1 Antiquity 00:48:06 5.2 Linnaean 00:51:24 5.3 Cladistic 00:51:43 6 Cells 00:56:13 7 Extraterrestrial 00:58:54 8 Artificial 01:00:22 9 Death 01:02:03 9.1 Extinction 01:03:01 9.2 Fossils 01:03:48 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8566896700926048 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (they have died), or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate. Various forms of life exist, such as plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea, and bacteria. The criteria can at times be ambiguous and may or may not define viruses, viroids, or potential synthetic life as "living". Biology is the science concerned with the study of life. There is currently no consensus regarding the definition of life. One popular definition is that organisms are open systems that maintain homeostasis, are composed of cells, have a life cycle, undergo metabolism, can grow, adapt to their environment, respond to stimuli, reproduce and evolve. However, several other definitions have been proposed, and there are some borderline cases of life, such as viruses or viroids. Abiogenesis attempts to describe the natural process of life arising from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. The prevailing scientific hypothesis is that the transition from non-living to living entities was not a single event, but a gradual process of increasing complexity. Life on Earth first appeared as early as 4.28 billion years ago, soon after ocean formation 4.41 billion years ago, and not long after the formation of the Earth 4.54 billion years ago. The earliest known life forms are microfossils of bacteria. Earth's current life may have descended from an RNA world, although RNA-based life may not have been the first. The mechanism by which life began on Earth is unknown, though many hypotheses have been formulated and are often based on the Miller–Urey experiment. Since its primordial beginnings, life on Earth has changed its environment on a geologic time scale, but it has also adapted to survive in most ecosystems and conditions. Some microorganisms, called extremophiles, thrive in physically or geochemically extreme environments that are detrimental to most other life on Earth. The cell is considered the structural and functional unit of life. There are two kinds of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic, both of which consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane and contain many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Cells reproduce through a process of cell division, in which the parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. In the past, there have been many attempts to define what is meant by "life" through obsolete concepts such as odic force, hylomorphism, spontaneous generation and vitalism, that have now been disproved by biological discoveries. Aristotle was the first person to classify organisms. Later, Carl Linnaeus ...
Views: 11 wikipedia tts
Ponderosa Pine Mortality, The Western Pine Beetle and Drought
 
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California forests have lost over 100 million trees since 2010 due to drought and bark beetle outbreak. This documentary explores the interaction between forest density, drought and the western pine beetle. It includes a series of interviews with scientists conducting current research into the issue in California's Sierra Nevada.
Views: 603 Cal Eco
Invasive species | Wikipedia audio article
 
52:37
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Invasive species Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health. The criteria for invasive species has been controversial, as widely divergent perceptions exist among researchers as well as concerns with the subjectivity of the term "invasive". Several alternate usages of the term have been proposed. The term as most often used applies to introduced species (also called "non-indigenous" or "non-native") that adversely affect the habitats and bioregions they invade economically, environmentally, or ecologically. Such invasive species may be either plants or animals and may disrupt by dominating a region, wilderness areas, particular habitats, or wildland–urban interface land from loss of natural controls (such as predators or herbivores). This includes non-native invasive plant species labeled as exotic pest plants and invasive exotics growing in native plant communities. It has been used in this sense by government organizations as well as conservation groups such as the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the California Native Plant Society. The European Union defines "Invasive Alien Species" as those that are, firstly, outside their natural distribution area, and secondly, threaten biological diversity.The term is also used by land managers, botanists, researchers, horticulturalists, conservationists, and the public for noxious weeds. The kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), Andean pampas grass (Cortaderia jubata), and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) are examples. An alternate usage broadens the term to include indigenous or "native" species along with non-native species, that have colonized natural areas (p. 136). Deer are an example, considered to be overpopulating their native zones and adjacent suburban gardens, by some in the Northeastern and Pacific Coast regions of the United States. Sometimes the term is used to describe a non-native or introduced species that has become widespread (p. 136). However, not every introduced species has adverse effects on the environment. A nonadverse example is the common goldfish (Carassius auratus), which is found throughout the United States, but rarely achieves high densities (p. 136). Notable examples of invasive species include European rabbits, grey squirrels, domestic cats, carp and ferrets.Dispersal and subsequent proliferation of species is not solely an anthropogenic phenomenon. There are many mechanisms by which species from all Kingdoms have been able to travel across continents in short periods of time such as via floating rafts, or on wind currents. Charles Darwin performed many experiments to better understand long distance seed dispersal, and was able to germinate seeds from insect frass, faeces of waterfowl, dirt clods on the feet of birds, all of which may have traveled significant distances under their own power, or be blown off course by thousands of miles. Invasion of long-established ecosystems by organisms from distant bio-regions is a natural phenomenon, which has likely been accelerated via hominid-assisted migration although this has not been adequately directly measured. The definition of "native" is controversial in that there is no way to precisely determine nativity. For example, the ancestors of Equus ferus (modern horses) evolved in North America and radiated to Eurasia before becoming locally extinct. Upon returning to North America in 1493 during their hominid-assisted migration, it is debatable as to whether they were native or exotic to the continent of their evolutionary ancestors.
Views: 14 wikipedia tts
Political Concepts at Brown: The Science Edition (Video 7)
 
01:52:45
The annual conference of the Political Concepts Initiative was dedicated to analyzing the contemporary conditions of knowledge production, with a focus on the sciences and the university. Speakers reflect on a single, specific concept in their presentations. Sponsored by the Cogut Institute for the Humanities. Banu Subramaniam • Diaspora/e Suman Seth • Race Moderator: Lukas Rieppel Saturday, December 8, 2018 Brown University
Views: 46 Brown University
All Hands on Deck - Day 2
 
04:09:58
Chapter 1 0:04 Welcome - Joi Ito, MIT Media Lab Chapter 2 14:03 - Keynote Address - Nainoa Thompson, Polynesian Voyaging Society Chapter 3 52:40 - CREATE, Building connections and engagement through the arts Chapter 4 1:28:07 - Lightning Talks Chapter 5 2:00:48 - EXPLORE, Empowering a global community of ocean explorers Chapter 6 2:41:10 - CONNECT, Connecting people to the ocean and to each other Chapter 7 3:25:35 - Here be Dragons Update Chapter 8 3:29:24 - Workshops 2A Chapter 9 3:56:21 - Closing Remarks To fully explore and understand the ocean, we can no longer rely on a handful of large, expensive research vessels and vehicles. We truly need "all hands on deck" to do it. On November 8-9, 2018, we brought together leaders and changemakers in ocean exploration, entertainment, recreation, and art to imagine new ways to empower an open, inclusive global community of ocean explorers. Our goal is to imagine creative ways to make the ocean so pervasive in modern culture that everyone has a positive association with and understanding of the sea. More information at: https://www.media.mit.edu/events/allhandsondeck/ License: CC-BY-4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)
Views: 762 MIT Media Lab
Green Ag Biotech
 
01:21:30
Stewart Brand Biotechnology's role in agriculture to help feed the world and meet the challenges of climate change is the topic when Stewart Brand, a recognized voice in environmental issues since the 1960s, delivers the fourth Heuermann Lecture.
Forest Invaders: How Invasive Species are Reshaping the Wooded Landscape of New England
 
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Ecologists David Orwig and David Foster from the Harvard Forest discuss the destructive efforts of invasive species such as the hemlock woolly adelgid and Asian longhorned beetle. (09/09/12)
Mangrove
 
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Mangroves are various types of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics – mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The remaining mangrove forest areas of the world in 2000 was 53,190 square miles (137,760 km²) spanning 118 countries and territories. The word is used in at least three senses: (1) most broadly to refer to the habitat and entire plant assemblage or mangal, for which the terms mangrove forest biome, mangrove swamp and mangrove forest are also used, (2) to refer to all trees and large shrubs in the mangrove swamp, and (3) narrowly to refer to the mangrove family of plants, the Rhizophoraceae, or even more specifically just to mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora. The term "mangrove" comes to English from Spanish (perhaps by way of Portuguese), and is likely to originate from Guarani. It was earlier "mangrow" (from Portuguese mangue or Spanish mangle), but this word was corrupted via folk etymology influence of the word "grove". The mangrove biome, or mangal, is a distinct saline woodland or shrubland habitat characterized by depositional coastal environments, where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in areas protected from high-energy wave action. The saline conditions tolerated by various mangrove species range from brackish water, through pure seawater (30 to 40 ppt(parts per thousand)), to water concentrated by evaporation to over twice the salinity of ocean seawater (up to 90 ppt). This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 294 Audiopedia
Urban ecology | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Urban ecology 00:01:12 1 History 00:02:44 2 Methods 00:03:18 2.1 Chemical and biochemical techniques 00:04:39 2.2 Temperature data and heat mapping 00:05:26 2.3 Remote sensing 00:06:07 2.4 LTERs and long-term data sets 00:07:04 3 Urban effects on the environment 00:07:42 3.1 Modification of land and waterways 00:08:55 3.2 Trade, shipping, and spread of invasive species 00:10:44 3.3 Human effects on biogeochemical pathways 00:12:51 4 Urban effects on climate 00:13:39 4.1 Urban heat island effect 00:14:32 4.2 Greenhouse gases 00:15:09 4.3 Acid rain and pollution 00:15:59 4.4 Urban environment as an anthropogenic biome 00:16:38 5 Biodiversity and urbanization 00:17:29 5.1 Changes in diversity 00:18:47 5.2 Cause of diversity change 00:20:45 6 Civil engineering and sustainability 00:21:27 6.1 Need for remediation 00:22:05 6.2 Sustainability 00:22:48 7 Summary Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Urban ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment. The urban environment refers to environments dominated by high-density residential and commercial buildings, paved surfaces, and other urban-related factors that create a unique landscape dissimilar to most previously studied environments in the field of ecology.Urban ecology is a recent field of study compared to ecology as a whole. The methods and studies of urban ecology are similar to and comprise a subset of ecology. The study of urban ecology carries increasing importance because more than 50% of the world's population today lives in urban areas. At the same time, it is estimated that within the next forty years, two-thirds of the world's population will be living in expanding urban centers. The ecological processes in the urban environment are comparable to those outside the urban context. However, the types of urban habitats and the species that inhabit them are poorly documented. Often, explanations for phenomena examined in the urban setting as well as predicting changes because of urbanization are the center for scientific research.
Views: 0 wikipedia tts
Bat
 
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Bat
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera (/kaɪˈrɒptərə/; from the Greek χείρ - cheir, "hand" and πτερόν - pteron, "wing") whose forelimbs form webbed wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. By contrast, other mammals said to fly, such as flying squirrels, gliding possums, and colugos, can only glide for short distances. Bats do not flap their entire forelimbs, as birds do, but instead flap their spread-out digits, which are very long and covered with a thin membrane or patagium. Bats are the second largest order of mammals (after the rodents), representing about 20% of all classified mammal species worldwide, with about 1,240 bat species divided into two suborders: the less specialized and largely fruit-eating megabats, or flying foxes, and the highly specialized and echolocating microbats. About 70% of bat species are insectivores. Most of the rest are frugivores, or fruit eaters. A few species, such as the fish-eating bat, feed from animals other than insects, with the vampire bats being hematophagous, or feeding on blood. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 375 Audiopedia
Evidence of common descent | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evidence_of_common_descent 00:06:41 1 Evidence from comparative physiology and biochemistry 00:06:54 1.1 Genetics 00:09:30 1.1.1 Universal biochemical organisation and molecular variance patterns 00:11:12 1.1.2 DNA sequencing 00:14:09 1.1.3 Proteins 00:15:59 1.1.4 Pseudogenes 00:17:13 1.1.5 Other mechanisms 00:19:40 1.2 Specific examples from comparative physiology and biochemistry 00:19:54 1.2.1 Chromosome 2 in humans 00:21:52 1.2.2 Cytochrome c and b 00:25:25 1.2.3 Endogenous retroviruses 00:27:18 1.2.4 Recent African origin of modern humans 00:28:43 2 Evidence from comparative anatomy 00:29:30 2.1 Atavisms 00:32:03 2.2 Evolutionary developmental biology and embryonic development 00:34:00 2.3 Homologous structures and divergent (adaptive) evolution 00:35:46 2.4 Nested hierarchies and classification 00:36:59 2.4.1 Evolutionary trees 00:39:27 2.5 Vestigial structures 00:46:15 2.6 Specific examples from comparative anatomy 00:46:27 2.6.1 Insect mouthparts and appendages 00:47:56 2.6.2 Pelvic structure of dinosaurs 00:49:05 2.6.3 Pentadactyl limb 00:51:45 2.6.4 Recurrent laryngeal nerve in giraffes 00:53:06 2.6.5 Route of the vas deferens 00:53:59 3 Evidence from paleontology 00:56:38 3.1 Fossil record 00:59:17 3.1.1 Extent of the fossil record 01:01:08 3.2 Limitations 01:04:39 3.3 Specific examples from paleontology 01:04:51 3.3.1 Evolution of the horse 01:07:56 3.3.2 Transition from fish to amphibians 01:09:26 4 Evidence from biogeography 01:09:52 4.1 Continental distribution 01:14:34 4.2 Island biogeography 01:14:44 4.2.1 Types of species found on islands 01:17:15 4.2.2 Endemism 01:19:20 4.2.3 Adaptive radiations 01:21:45 4.3 Ring species 01:22:55 4.4 Specific examples from biogeography 01:23:07 4.4.1 Distribution of iGlossopteris/i 01:24:23 4.4.2 Metatherian distribution 01:26:39 4.4.3 Migration, isolation, and distribution of the camel 01:27:44 5 Evidence from selection 01:29:53 5.1 Artificial selection and experimental evolution 01:32:53 5.2 Invertebrates 01:33:02 5.2.1 Historical lead tolerance in iDaphnia/i 01:34:29 5.2.2 Peppered moths 01:34:51 5.3 Microbes 01:35:00 5.3.1 Antimicrobial resistance 01:36:42 5.3.2 Nylon-eating bacteria 01:37:38 5.4 Plants and fungi 01:37:48 5.4.1 Monkeyflower radiation 01:39:24 5.4.2 Radiotrophic fungi 01:40:33 5.5 Vertebrates 01:40:42 5.5.1 Guppies 01:43:56 5.5.2 Humans 01:46:32 5.5.3 Italian wall lizards 01:49:53 5.5.4 PAH resistance in killifish 01:50:51 5.5.5 PCB resistance in codfish 01:52:50 5.5.6 Urban wildlife 01:54:30 5.5.7 White Sands lizards 01:57:27 6 Evidence from speciation 02:01:50 6.1 Fossils 02:04:20 6.1.1 iGloborotalia/i 02:05:53 6.1.2 Radiolaria 02:07:24 6.1.3 iRhizosolenia/i 02:08:29 6.1.4 iTurborotalia/i 02:10:24 6.1.5 Vertebrates 02:12:13 6.2 Invertebrates 02:12:22 6.2.1 iDrosophila melanogaster/i 02:14:23 6.2.2 Gall wasps 02:16:10 6.2.3 Hawthorn fly 02:17:29 6.2.4 London Underground mosquito 02:20:00 6.2.5 Snapping shrimp and the isthmus of Panama 02:21:33 6.3 Plants 02:27:00 6.3.1 iMimulus peregrinus/i 02:28:13 6.3.2 iRaphanobrassica/i 02:29:32 6.3.3 iSenecio/i (groundsel) 02:32:02 6.3.4 Thale cress 02:33:54 6.3.5 iTragopogon/i (salsify) 02:36:37 6.4 Vertebrates 02:36:46 6.4.1 Blackcap 02:37:59 6.4.2 Mollies 02:39:31 6.4.3 Polar bear 02:42:44 7 Evidence from coloration 02:43:47 7.1 Mimicry and aposematism 02:44:44 7.2 Camouflage 02:45:57 8 Evidence from mathematical modeling 02:51:36 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7456196515241479 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Evidence of common descent of living organisms has been discovered by scientists researching in a variety of disciplines over many decades, demonstrating that all life on Earth comes from a single ancestor. This forms an important part of the evidence on which evolutionary theory rests, demonstrates that evolution does occur, and illust ...
Views: 14 wikipedia tts
Bioinvader | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasive_species 00:04:31 1 Causes 00:04:51 1.1 Species based mechanisms 00:11:16 1.2 Ecosystem-based mechanisms 00:15:25 2 Ecology 00:15:34 2.1 Traits of invaded ecosystems 00:17:36 2.2 Vectors 00:20:08 2.2.1 Within the Aquatic Environment 00:26:13 2.3 Impacts of wildfire and firefighting 00:28:31 3 Effects 00:28:40 3.1 Ecological 00:31:48 3.2 Geomorphological 00:32:32 3.3 Economic 00:33:32 3.3.1 Economic opportunities 00:34:08 3.3.1.1 Benefits 00:37:50 3.3.1.2 Invasivorism 00:39:25 3.3.2 Costs 00:41:07 3.3.3 Plant industry 00:42:46 3.3.4 Aquaculture 00:43:05 3.3.5 Forestry 00:44:49 3.3.6 Tourism and recreation 00:45:51 3.4 Health 00:47:10 3.5 Biodiversity 00:48:31 3.5.1 Genetic pollution 00:50:40 4 Invasive exotic diseases 00:51:56 5 Study and eradication 00:54:30 5.1 Introduced species on islands 00:56:03 5.1.1 New Zealand 00:58:34 5.1.2 South Georgia Island Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9062984389570389 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.The criteria for invasive species has been controversial, as widely divergent perceptions exist among researchers as well as concerns with the subjectivity of the term "invasive". Several alternate usages of the term have been proposed. The term as most often used applies to introduced species (also called "non-indigenous" or "non-native") that adversely affect the habitats and bioregions they invade economically, environmentally, or ecologically. Such invasive species may be either plants or animals and may disrupt by dominating a region, wilderness areas, particular habitats, or wildland–urban interface land from loss of natural controls (such as predators or herbivores). This includes non-native invasive plant species labeled as exotic pest plants and invasive exotics growing in native plant communities. It has been used in this sense by government organizations as well as conservation groups such as the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the California Native Plant Society. The European Union defines "Invasive Alien Species" as those that are, firstly, outside their natural distribution area, and secondly, threaten biological diversity.The term is also used by land managers, botanists, researchers, horticulturalists, conservationists, and the public for noxious weeds. The kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), Andean pampas grass (Cortaderia jubata), and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) are examples. An alternate usage broadens the term to include indigenous or "native" species along with non-native species, that have colonized natural areas (p. 136). Deer are an example, considered to be overpopulating their native zones and adjacent suburban gardens, by some in the Northeastern and Pacific Coast regions of the United States. Sometimes the term is used to describe a non-native or introduced species that has become widespread (p. 136). However, not every introduced species has adverse effects on the environment. A nonadverse example is the common goldfish (Carassius auratus), which is found throughout the United States, but rarely achieves high densities (p. 136). Notable examples of invasive species include European rabbits, grey squirrels, domestic cats, carp and ferrets. It has been suggested that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as a class should be regarded and managed as invasive species.Dispersal and subsequent proliferation of species is not solely an anthropogenic phenomenon. There are many mechanisms by which species from all Kingdoms have been able to travel across continents in short periods of time such as via floating rafts, or on wind currents. Charles Darwin, a B ...
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
Mangrove | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangrove 00:02:06 1 Etymology 00:02:38 2 Ecology 00:10:35 3 Biology 00:11:29 3.1 Adaptations to low oxygen 00:12:38 3.2 Limiting salt intake 00:13:56 3.3 Limiting water loss 00:14:52 3.4 Nutrient uptake 00:15:41 3.5 Increasing survival of offspring 00:17:13 4 Taxonomy and evolution 00:18:07 4.1 Major components 00:18:16 4.2 Minor components 00:18:25 5 Geographical regions 00:19:17 5.1 Top 20 mangrove habitat nations 00:19:28 5.2 Africa 00:20:54 5.3 Americas 00:21:12 5.3.1 Continental United States 00:21:42 5.3.2 Mexico 00:22:29 5.3.3 Central America and Caribbean 00:23:04 5.3.3.1 Belize 00:25:03 5.3.4 South America 00:28:16 5.4 Asia 00:28:24 5.4.1 Sundarbans 00:31:19 5.4.2 India 00:32:29 5.4.2.1 Bhitarkanika mangroves 00:33:03 5.4.2.2 Godavari-Krishna mangroves 00:33:29 5.4.2.3 Pichavaram mangroves 00:33:55 5.4.2.4 Mumbai mangroves 00:34:46 5.4.2.5 Baratang Island mangroves 00:35:10 5.4.3 Indo-Malaya Ecozone 00:38:03 5.4.3.1 Indonesia 00:38:42 5.4.4 Pakistan 00:41:42 5.4.5 Iran 00:42:47 5.4.6 Middle East 00:44:23 5.5 Oceania 00:44:32 5.5.1 Australia and New Guinea 00:45:14 5.5.2 New Zealand 00:45:19 5.5.3 Pacific islands 00:45:27 6 Mangroves around the world 00:45:58 7 Exploitation and conservation 00:46:08 8 Reforestation 00:46:48 9 National studies 00:46:58 10 See also 00:47:14 11 References 00:49:49 12 Further reading 00:51:46 13 External links 00:53:43 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7038244921801529 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The total mangrove forest area of the world in 2000 was 137,800 square kilometres (53,200 sq mi), spanning 118 countries and territories.Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees, also called halophytes, and are adapted to life in harsh coastal conditions. They contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action. They are adapted to the low oxygen conditions of waterlogged mud.The word is used in at least three senses: (1) most broadly to refer to the habitat and entire plant assemblage or mangal, for which the terms mangrove forest biome, and mangrove swamp are also used, (2) to refer to all trees and large shrubs in the mangrove swamp, and (3) narrowly to refer to the mangrove family of plants, the Rhizophoraceae, or even more specifically just to mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora.The mangrove biome, or mangal, is a distinct saline woodland or shrubland habitat characterized by depositional coastal environments, where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in areas protected from high-energy wave action. The saline conditions tolerated by various mangrove species range from brackish water, through pure seawater (3 to 4%), to water concentrated by evaporation to over twice the salinity of ocean seawater (up to 9%).
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Biodiverse | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:36:59
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity 00:05:11 1 History of terminology 00:07:17 2 Definitions 00:07:27 2.1 Prior term 00:07:49 2.2 Alternate terms 00:09:02 2.3 Wilcox 1982 00:09:53 2.4 Genetic: Wilcox 1984 00:10:19 2.5 United Nations 1992 00:11:08 2.6 Gaston and Spicer 2004 00:11:23 3 Distribution 00:12:51 3.1 Latitudinal gradients 00:14:37 3.2 Hotspots 00:17:39 4 Evolution 00:17:49 4.1 Chronology 00:20:28 4.2 Diversification 00:24:40 5 Ecosystem services 00:24:50 5.1 The balance of evidence 00:26:34 5.1.1 Services enhanced 00:26:43 5.1.1.1 Provisioning services 00:27:38 5.1.1.2 Regulating services 00:29:24 5.1.2 Services with mixed evidence 00:29:34 5.1.2.1 Provisioning services 00:29:45 5.1.2.2 Regulating services 00:31:41 5.1.3 Services hindered 00:31:50 5.1.3.1 Provisioning services 00:32:08 5.1.3.2 Regulating services 00:32:41 5.1.3.3 Provisioning services 00:33:13 5.1.3.4 Regulating services 00:35:38 5.2 Agriculture 00:40:38 5.3 Human health 00:44:39 5.4 Business and industry 00:45:21 5.5 Leisure, cultural and aesthetic value 00:47:02 5.6 Ecological services 00:49:19 6 Number of species 00:51:34 7 Measuring biodiversity 00:51:45 8 Species loss rates 00:55:22 9 Threats 01:03:40 9.1 Habitat destruction 01:06:19 9.2 Introduced and invasive species 01:11:08 9.2.1 Genetic pollution 01:12:26 9.3 Overexploitation 01:13:17 9.4 Hybridization, genetic pollution/erosion and food security 01:14:57 9.5 Climate change 01:16:51 9.6 Human overpopulation 01:18:35 10 The Holocene extinction 01:19:25 11 Conservation 01:20:53 11.1 Protection and restoration techniques 01:22:45 12 Protected areas 01:23:32 12.1 National parks 01:24:31 12.2 Wildlife sanctuary 01:25:15 12.3 Forest reserves 01:26:25 12.3.1 Steps to conserve the forest cover 01:27:13 12.4 Zoological parks 01:27:53 12.5 Botanical gardens 01:28:35 13 Resource allocation 01:29:25 14 Legal status 01:29:35 14.1 International 01:31:34 14.2 National level laws 01:33:41 15 Analytical limits 01:33:52 15.1 Taxonomic and size relationships 01:35:06 16 Diversity study (botany) 01:36:17 17 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8401299734395855 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is typically a measure of variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the equator, which is the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, and is richest in the tropics. These tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 percent of earth's surface, and contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity is usually highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest, and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the future.Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions. More than 99.9 percent of all species that ever lived on Earth, amounting to over five billion species, are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described. More recently, in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth currently with only one-thousandth of one percent described. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes. In comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC (trillion tons of carbon). In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Uni ...
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Wetland | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Wetland 00:01:54 1 Definitions 00:03:07 1.1 Technical definitions 00:03:52 1.1.1 Ramsar Convention definition 00:04:40 1.1.2 Regional definitions 00:06:38 2 Ecology 00:07:10 3 Characteristics 00:07:29 4 Hydrology 00:09:16 4.1 Role of salinity 00:09:43 4.2 Soil 00:10:39 4.3 Biota 00:11:23 4.3.1 Flora 00:12:33 4.3.2 Fauna 00:14:36 4.3.3 Algae 00:15:34 5 Climates 00:15:43 5.1 Temperature 00:16:53 5.2 Precipitation 00:17:51 6 Uses of wetlands 00:19:28 6.1 Water storage (flood control) 00:22:12 6.2 Groundwater replenishment 00:24:12 6.3 Shoreline stabilization and storm protection 00:25:45 6.4 Water purification 00:30:12 6.5 Constructed wetlands 00:31:38 6.6 Reservoirs of biodiversity 00:36:07 6.7 Wetland products and productivity 00:40:40 6.8 Additional functions and uses of wetlands 00:41:27 7 Wetlands and climate change 00:43:42 7.1 Peatswamps in Southeast Asia 00:44:57 8 Wetland Disturbance 00:46:53 9 Conservation 00:47:35 9.1 Balancing wetland conservation with the needs of people 00:49:15 9.2 Ramsar Convention 00:50:27 10 Valuation 00:51:25 10.1 Assessment 00:54:25 10.2 Inventory 00:55:44 10.3 Monitoring 00:58:55 11 Restoration 01:00:07 11.1 Levels of restoration 01:02:55 11.2 Important considerations 01:03:31 11.3 Legislation 01:03:54 12 List of wetland types 01:06:39 13 Wetland names 01:06:51 14 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is inundated by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants, adapted to the unique hydric soil. Wetlands play a number of functions, including water purification, water storage, processing of carbon and other nutrients, stabilization of shorelines, and support of plants and animals. Wetlands are also considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. Whether any individual wetland performs these functions, and the degree to which it performs them, depends on characteristics of that wetland and the lands and waters near it. Methods for rapidly assessing these functions, wetland ecological health, and general wetland condition have been developed in many regions and have contributed to wetland conservation partly by raising public awareness of the functions and the ecosystem services some wetlands provide.Wetlands occur naturally on every continent. The main wetland types are swamp, marsh, bog, and fen; sub-types include mangrove forest, carr, pocosin, floodplains, mire, vernal pool, sink, and many others. Many peatlands are wetlands. The water in wetlands is either freshwater, brackish, or saltwater. Wetlands can be tidal (inundated by tides) or non-tidal. The largest wetlands include the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain, the Pantanal in South America, and the Sundarbans in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta.The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth.Constructed wetlands are used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as stormwater runoff. They may also play a role in water-sensitive urban design.
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Flower | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Flower 00:01:03 1 Morphology 00:01:12 1.1 Floral parts 00:01:48 1.1.1 Perianth 00:02:23 1.1.2 Reproductive 00:03:51 1.2 Structure 00:06:51 1.2.1 Inflorescence 00:07:33 1.2.2 Floral diagrams and floral formulae 00:08:43 2 Development 00:09:31 2.1 Flowering transition 00:11:32 2.2 Organ development 00:12:56 3 Floral function 00:14:10 3.1 Flower specialization and pollination 00:16:39 4 Pollination 00:17:53 4.1 Pollination mechanism 00:20:27 4.2 Attraction methods 00:22:06 4.3 Flower-pollinator relationships 00:22:56 4.4 Pollen allergy 00:24:54 5 Seed dispersal 00:25:03 6 Evolution 00:30:18 7 Color 00:32:19 8 Symbolism 00:34:43 9 Usage 00:38:00 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds. In addition to facilitating the reproduction of flowering plants, flowers have long been admired and used by humans to bring beauty to their environment, and also as objects of romance, ritual, religion, medicine and as a source of food.
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Soil biodiversity | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_biodiversity 00:00:22 1 Biodiversity 00:03:14 2 Process effects 00:03:24 2.1 Acidification 00:08:09 2.2 Structure decline 00:12:44 2.3 Sodicity 00:14:24 2.4 Salinisation 00:16:48 2.5 Erosion 00:18:37 3 Catchment scale impacts 00:20:15 4 Monitoring and mapping 00:21:13 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7527030515343162 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Soil biodiversity refers to the relationship of soil to biodiversity and to aspects of the soil that can be managed in relation to biodiversity. Soil biodiversity relates to some catchment management considerations.
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The SER Primer on Ecological Restoration
 
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This content is freely available online, so no copyright infringement is intended https://nau.edu/uploadedFiles/Centers-Institutes/ERI/_Forms/Resources/ser-primer.pdf -Video Upload powered by https://www.TunesToTube.com
Views: 35 Book Loq
Soil | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil 00:02:47 1 Overview 00:02:56 1.1 Functions 00:06:05 1.2 Description 00:11:19 2 History of studies 00:11:28 2.1 Fertility 00:18:11 2.2 Formation 00:20:26 3 Formation 00:22:51 3.1 Factors 00:23:24 3.1.1 Parent material 00:26:55 3.1.1.1 Weathering 00:32:47 3.1.2 Climate 00:37:40 3.1.3 Topography 00:39:43 3.1.4 Organisms 00:46:49 3.1.5 Time 00:49:09 4 Physical properties 00:50:50 4.1 Texture 00:56:05 4.2 Structure 01:02:42 4.3 Density 01:04:37 4.4 Porosity 01:06:18 4.5 Consistency 01:08:34 4.6 Temperature 01:16:16 4.7 Color 01:18:48 4.8 Resistivity 01:19:36 5 Water 01:23:49 5.1 Water retention forces 01:25:06 5.2 Moisture classification 01:26:33 5.3 Soil moisture content 01:27:44 5.4 Water flow 01:29:53 5.4.1 Saturated 01:31:11 5.4.2 Unsaturated 01:32:14 5.5 Water uptake by plants 01:35:31 5.6 Consumptive use and water use efficiency 01:37:12 6 Atmosphere 01:40:54 7 Composition of the solid phase (soil matrix) 01:41:35 7.1 Gravel, sand and silt 01:42:27 7.2 Mineral colloids; soil clays 01:45:50 7.2.1 Alumino-silica clays 01:50:05 7.2.2 Crystalline chain clays 01:50:24 7.2.3 Amorphous clays 01:51:26 7.2.4 Sesquioxide clays 01:52:48 7.3 Organic colloids 01:53:40 7.4 Carbon and terra preta 01:54:56 8 Chemistry 01:56:39 8.1 Cation and anion exchange 02:00:07 8.1.1 Cation exchange capacity (CEC) 02:01:43 8.1.2 Anion exchange capacity (AEC) 02:03:11 8.2 Reactivity (pH) 02:04:44 8.2.1 Base saturation percentage 02:06:39 8.3 Buffering 02:06:49 9 Nutrients 02:07:28 9.1 Uptake processes 02:08:26 9.2 Carbon 02:10:06 9.3 Nitrogen 02:12:42 9.3.1 Gains 02:16:50 9.3.2 Sequestration 02:18:30 9.3.3 Losses 02:20:58 9.4 Phosphorus 02:23:45 9.5 Potassium 02:24:53 9.6 Calcium 02:26:15 9.7 Magnesium 02:27:56 9.8 Sulfur 02:28:55 9.9 Micronutrients 02:29:36 9.10 Non-essential nutrients 02:30:12 10 Soil organic matter 02:31:23 10.1 Humus 02:32:24 10.2 Climatological influence 02:32:52 10.3 Plant residue 02:36:11 11 Horizons 02:40:03 12 Classification 02:41:08 12.1 Systems 02:42:02 12.1.1 Australia 02:43:36 12.1.2 European Union 02:44:46 12.1.3 United States 02:44:55 13 Uses 02:45:25 14 Degradation 02:45:46 15 Reclamation 02:46:35 16 See also 02:50:58 17 References 02:57:13 18 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8409238058485481 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. Earth's body of soil, called the pedosphere, has four important functions: as a medium for plant growth as a means of water storage, supply and purification as a modifier of Earth's atmosphere as a habitat for organismsAll of these functions, in their turn, modify the soil. The pedosphere interfaces with the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere. The term pedolith, used commonly to refer to the soil, translates to ground stone in the sense "fundamental stone". Soil consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution). Accordingly, soil scientists can envisage soils as a three-state system of solids, liquids, and gases.Soil is a product of several factors: the influence of climate, relief (elevation, orientation, and slope of terrain), organisms, and the soil's parent materials (original minerals) interacting over time. It continually undergoes development by way of numerous physical, chemical and biological processes, which include weathering with associated erosion. Given its complexity and strong internal connectedness, soil ecologists regard soil as an ecosystem.Most soils have a dry bulk density (density of soil taking into account voids when dry) between 1.1 and 1.6 g/cm3, while the soil particle density is much higher, in the range of 2.6 to 2.7 g/cm3. Little of the soi ...
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Tropical rainforest
 
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A tropical rainforest is an ecosystem type that occurs roughly within the latitudes 28 degrees north or south of the equator (in the equatorial zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn). This ecosystem experiences high average temperatures and a significant amount of rainfall. Rainforests can be found in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico and on many of the Pacific, Caribbean, and Indian Ocean islands. Within the World Wildlife Fund's biome classification, tropical rainforests are thought to be a type of tropical wet forest (or tropical moist broadleaf forest) and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 2288 Audiopedia
Panspermia | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Panspermia 00:02:30 1 History 00:05:50 2 Proposed mechanisms 00:07:29 2.1 Radiopanspermia 00:10:20 2.2 Lithopanspermia 00:13:57 2.3 Accidental panspermia 00:14:22 2.4 Directed panspermia 00:19:41 2.5 Pseudo-panspermia 00:26:24 3 Extraterrestrial life 00:28:16 3.1 Hypotheses on extraterrestrial sources of illnesses 00:30:02 3.2 Case studies 00:34:16 3.3 Hoaxes 00:35:05 4 Extremophiles 00:38:14 4.1 Research in outer space 00:39:16 4.1.1 ERA 00:41:29 4.1.2 BIOPAN 00:42:36 4.1.3 EXOSTACK 00:43:30 4.1.4 EXPOSE 00:44:32 4.1.5 Tanpopo 00:45:30 5 Criticism Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Panspermia (from Ancient Greek πᾶν (pan), meaning 'all', and σπέρμα (sperma), meaning 'seed') is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by microorganisms. Distribution may have occurred between galaxies, and not to have been restricted to the limited scale of solar systems.Panspermia hypotheses propose (for example) that microscopic life-forms that can survive the effects of space (such as extremophiles) can become trapped in debris ejected into space after collisions between planets and small Solar System bodies that harbor life. Some organisms may travel dormant for an extended amount of time before colliding randomly with other planets or intermingling with protoplanetary disks. Under certain ideal impact circumstances (into a body of water, for example), and ideal conditions on a new planet's surfaces, it is possible that the surviving organisms could become active and begin to colonize their new environment. Panspermia studies concentrate not on how life began, but on the methods that may cause its distribution in the Universe.Pseudo-panspermia (sometimes called "soft panspermia" or "molecular panspermia") argues that the pre-biotic organic building-blocks of life originated in space, became incorporated in the solar nebula from which planets condensed, and were further—and continuously—distributed to planetary surfaces where life then emerged (abiogenesis). From the early 1970s, it started to become evident that interstellar dust included a large component of organic molecules. Interstellar molecules are formed by chemical reactions within very sparse interstellar or circumstellar clouds of dust and gas. The dust plays a critical role in shielding the molecules from the ionizing effect of ultraviolet radiation emitted by stars.The chemistry leading to life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the Universe was only 10 to 17 million years old. Though the presence of life is confirmed only on the Earth, some scientists think that extraterrestrial life is not only plausible, but probable or inevitable. Probes and instruments have started examining other planets and moons in the Solar System and in other planetary systems for evidence of having once supported simple life, and projects such as SETI attempt to detect radio transmissions from possible extraterrestrial civilizations.
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Environmental governance | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_governance 00:02:54 1 Definitions 00:09:02 2 Environmental issues 00:09:12 2.1 Main drivers of environmental degradation 00:13:20 2.2 Challenges 00:18:06 2.3 Local governance 00:22:34 2.4 State governance 00:25:22 2.5 Global Governance 00:28:27 2.6 Issues of scale 00:28:36 2.6.1 Multi-tier governance 00:29:36 2.6.2 Institutional fit 00:30:45 3 Environmental governance issues 00:30:56 3.1 Soil deterioration 00:31:59 3.2 Climate change 00:34:28 3.3 Biodiversity 00:39:38 3.4 Water 00:46:47 3.5 Ozone layer 00:47:23 3.6 Nuclear risk 00:47:41 3.7 Transgenic organisms 00:48:22 3.8 Precautionary principle 00:50:01 3.9 Socio-environmental conflicts 00:51:08 4 Agreements 00:51:17 4.1 Conventions 00:55:54 4.2 Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) 00:59:40 5 Background 01:00:56 5.1 Rio Conference (1992) and reactions 01:02:00 5.2 Agenda 21 01:03:15 6 Actors 01:03:24 6.1 International institutions 01:03:34 6.1.1 United Nations Environment Program 01:06:58 6.1.2 Global Environment Facility (GEF) 01:09:27 6.1.3 United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) 01:10:40 6.1.4 World Environment Organization (WEO) 01:11:47 6.1.5 World Bank 01:13:41 6.1.5.1 GEF 01:15:28 6.1.6 World Trade Organization (WTO) 01:17:12 6.1.7 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 01:18:22 6.1.8 UN ICLEI 01:20:22 6.1.9 Other secretariats 01:21:29 6.1.10 Criticism 01:22:20 6.2 States 01:22:28 6.2.1 Environmental governance at the state level 01:23:13 6.2.2 State participation in global environmental governance 01:23:47 6.3 Business 01:26:00 6.4 Non-governmental organizations 01:28:30 7 Proposals 01:29:13 7.1 Coherence and coordination 01:33:03 7.2 Democratization 01:34:21 7.3 Institutional reform 01:38:11 7.4 Education 01:38:57 7.5 Transform daily life 01:41:19 7.6 Policies and regulations 01:41:51 7.7 Coordination Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8241301135331573 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Environmental governance is a concept in political ecology and environmental policy that advocates sustainability (sustainable development) as the supreme consideration for managing all human activities—political, social and economic. Governance includes government, business and civil society, and emphasizes whole system management. To capture this diverse range of elements, environmental governance often employs alternative systems of governance, for example watershed-based management.It views natural resources and the environment as global public goods, belonging to the category of goods that are not diminished when they are shared. This means that everyone benefits from for example, a breathable atmosphere, stable climate and stable biodiversity. Public goods are non-rivalrous—a natural resource enjoyed by one person can still be enjoyed by others—and non-excludable—it is impossible to prevent someone consuming the good (breathing). Nevertheless, public goods are recognized as beneficial and therefore have value. The notion of a global public good thus emerges, with a slight distinction: it covers necessities that must not be destroyed by one person or state. The non-rivalrous character of such goods calls for a management approach that restricts public and private actors from damaging them. One approach is to attribute an economic value to the resource. Water is possibly the best example of this type of good. As of 2013 environmental governance is far from meeting these imperatives. “Despite a great awareness of environmental questions from developed and developing countries, there is environmental degradation and the appearance of new environmental problems. This situation is caused by the parlous state of global environmental governance, wherein current global environmental governance is unable to address environmental issues due to many factors. These include fragmented govern ...
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Wetland | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wetland 00:02:07 1 Definitions 00:03:27 1.1 Technical definitions 00:04:15 1.1.1 Ramsar Convention definition 00:05:09 1.1.2 Regional definitions 00:07:19 2 Ecology 00:07:54 3 Characteristics 00:08:14 4 Hydrology 00:10:12 4.1 Role of salinity 00:10:42 4.2 Soil 00:11:42 4.3 Biota 00:12:30 4.3.1 Flora 00:13:48 4.3.2 Fauna 00:16:04 4.3.3 Algae 00:17:09 5 Climates 00:17:18 5.1 Temperature 00:18:35 5.2 Precipitation 00:19:39 6 Uses of wetlands 00:21:26 6.1 Water storage (flood control) 00:24:27 6.2 Groundwater replenishment 00:26:41 6.3 Shoreline stabilization and storm protection 00:28:24 6.4 Water purification 00:33:22 6.5 Constructed wetlands 00:34:58 6.6 Reservoirs of biodiversity 00:39:54 6.7 Wetland products and productivity 00:44:57 6.8 Additional functions and uses of wetlands 00:45:48 7 Wetlands and climate change 00:48:19 7.1 Peatswamps in Southeast Asia 00:49:41 8 Wetland Disturbance 00:51:48 8.1 Water Chemistry 00:53:20 9 Conservation 00:54:07 9.1 Balancing wetland conservation with the needs of people 00:55:58 9.2 Ramsar Convention 00:57:17 10 Valuation 00:58:21 10.1 Assessment 01:01:41 10.2 Inventory 01:03:09 10.3 Monitoring 01:06:42 11 Restoration 01:08:01 11.1 Levels of restoration 01:11:07 11.2 Important considerations 01:11:46 11.3 Legislation 01:12:11 12 List of wetland types 01:15:11 13 Wetland names 01:15:24 14 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9195822807822696 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is inundated by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants, adapted to the unique hydric soil. Wetlands play a number of functions, including water purification, water storage, processing of carbon and other nutrients, stabilization of shorelines, and support of plants and animals. Wetlands are also considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. Whether any individual wetland performs these functions, and the degree to which it performs them, depends on characteristics of that wetland and the lands and waters near it. Methods for rapidly assessing these functions, wetland ecological health, and general wetland condition have been developed in many regions and have contributed to wetland conservation partly by raising public awareness of the functions and the ecosystem services some wetlands provide.Wetlands occur naturally on every continent. The main wetland types are swamp, marsh, bog, and fen; sub-types include mangrove forest, carr, pocosin, floodplains, mire, vernal pool, sink, and many others. Many peatlands are wetlands. The water in wetlands is either freshwater, brackish, or saltwater. Wetlands can be tidal (inundated by tides) or non-tidal. The largest wetlands include the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain, the Pantanal in South America, and the Sundarbans in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta.The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth.Constructed wetlands are used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as stormwater runoff. They may also play a role in water-sensitive urban design.
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On the Origin of Species | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: On the Origin of Species 00:02:25 1 Summary of Darwin's theory 00:03:42 2 Background 00:03:51 2.1 Developments before Darwin's theory 00:07:49 2.2 Inception of Darwin's theory 00:11:40 2.3 Further development 00:15:03 3 Publication 00:15:12 3.1 Time taken to publish 00:17:04 3.2 Events leading to publication: "big book" manuscript 00:18:28 3.3 Joint publication of papers by Wallace and Darwin 00:20:25 3.4 Abstract of Species book 00:21:32 3.5 Murray as publisher; choice of title 00:24:35 3.6 Publication and subsequent editions 00:27:20 3.7 Publication outside Great Britain 00:30:25 4 Content 00:30:34 4.1 Title pages and introduction 00:32:55 4.2 Variation under domestication and under nature 00:34:46 4.3 Struggle for existence, natural selection, and divergence 00:39:02 4.4 Variation and heredity 00:41:45 4.5 Difficulties for the theory 00:48:01 4.6 Geological record 00:50:59 4.7 Geographic distribution 00:53:50 4.8 Classification, morphology, embryology, rudimentary organs 00:55:47 4.9 Concluding remarks 00:57:32 5 Structure, style, and themes 00:57:43 5.1 Nature and structure of Darwin's argument 00:59:10 5.2 Literary style 01:01:03 5.3 Human evolution 01:04:35 6 Reception 01:06:47 6.1 Impact on the scientific community 01:10:57 6.1.1 Impact outside Great Britain 01:13:04 6.1.2 Challenges to natural selection 01:14:56 6.2 Impact on economic and political debates 01:16:23 6.3 Religious attitudes 01:20:06 7 Modern influence 01:22:33 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life), published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. Darwin included evidence that he had gathered on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation.Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology. There was growing support for such ideas among dissident anatomists and the general public, but during the first half of the 19th century the English scientific establishment was closely tied to the Church of England, while science was part of natural theology. Ideas about the transmutation of species were controversial as they conflicted with the beliefs that species were unchanging parts of a designed hierarchy and that humans were unique, unrelated to other animals. The political and theological implications were intensely debated, but transmutation was not accepted by the scientific mainstream. The book was written for non-specialist readers and attracted widespread interest upon its publication. As Darwin was an eminent scientist, his findings were taken seriously and the evidence he presented generated scientific, philosophical, and religious discussion. The debate over the book contributed to the campaign by T. H. Huxley and his fellow members of the X Club to secularise science by promoting scientific naturalism. Within two decades there was widespread scientific agreement that evolution, with a branching pattern of common descent, had occurred, but scientists were slow to give natural selection the significance that Darwin thought appropriate. During "the eclipse of Darwinism" from the 1880s to the 1930s, various other mechanisms of evolution were given more credit. With the development of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s, Darwin's concept of evolutionary adaptation through natural selection became central to modern evolutionary theory, and it has now become the unifying concept of ...
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Habitat | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habitat 00:02:27 1 Definition and etymology 00:03:08 2 Environmental factors 00:05:22 3 Types 00:10:34 4 Microhabitats 00:13:11 5 Extreme habitats 00:19:38 6 Habitat change 00:23:03 7 Habitat protection 00:25:14 8 Monotypic habitat 00:27:16 9 See also 00:27:25 10 Notes and references 00:27:35 11 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8656773423771339 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives. It is characterized by both physical and biological features. A species' habitat is those places where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction. The physical factors are for example soil, moisture, range of temperature, and light intensity as well as biotic factors such as the availability of food and the presence or absence of predators. Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, but some are tolerant of wide variations while others are very specific in their requirements. A habitat is not necessarily a geographical area, it can be the interior of a stem, a rotten log, a rock or a clump of moss, and for a parasitic organism it is the body of its host, part of the host's body such as the digestive tract, or a single cell within the host's body. Habitat types include polar, temperate, subtropical and tropical. The terrestrial vegetation type may be forest, steppe, grassland, semi-arid or desert. Fresh water habitats include marshes, streams, rivers, lakes, and ponds, and marine habitats include salt marshes, the coast, the intertidal zone, estuaries, reefs, bays, the open sea, the sea bed, deep water and submarine vents. Habitats change over time. This may be due to a violent event such as the eruption of a volcano, an earthquake, a tsunami, a wildfire or a change in oceanic currents; or the change may be more gradual over millennia with alterations in the climate, as ice sheets and glaciers advance and retreat, and as different weather patterns bring changes of precipitation and solar radiation. Other changes come as a direct result of human activities; deforestation, the plowing of ancient grasslands, the diversion and damming of rivers, the draining of marshland and the dredging of the seabed. The introduction of alien species can have a devastating effect on native wildlife, through increased predation, through competition for resources or through the introduction of pests and diseases to which the native species have no immunity.
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Biodiversity of New Caledonia | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity_of_New_Caledonia 00:01:06 1 Location and description 00:05:13 1.1 Geologic origins 00:09:31 1.2 Early organisms 00:10:45 2 Evolution and history 00:13:57 2.1 Extinct species 00:15:21 3 Ecoregions 00:17:33 3.1 Dry forests 00:18:43 3.2 Rainforest 00:20:58 4 Flora 00:29:18 5 Fauna 00:35:16 5.1 Birds 00:36:55 6 Threats 00:39:46 7 Preservation 00:41:46 8 Gallery (landscapes) 00:41:57 9 Gallery (coral reef fish) 00:42:16 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8868052088900191 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The biodiversity of New Caledonia is of exceptional biological and paleoecological interest. It is frequently referred to as a biodiversity hotspot. The country is a large South Pacific archipelago with a total land area of more than 18,000 square kilometres (6,900 sq mi). The terrain includes a variety of reefs, atolls, small islands, and a variety of topographical and edaphic regions on the largest island, all of which promote the development of unusually concentrated biodiversity. The region's climate is oceanic and tropical. New Caledonia is separated from the nearest mainland by more than 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) of open sea. Its isolation dates from at least the mid-Miocene, and possibly from the Oligocene, and that isolation has preserved its relict biota, fostering the evolution of wide ranges of endemic species.
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Panspermia | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panspermia 00:02:31 1 History 00:05:52 2 Proposed mechanisms 00:07:30 2.1 Radiopanspermia 00:10:23 2.2 Lithopanspermia 00:14:00 2.3 Accidental panspermia 00:14:25 2.4 Directed panspermia 00:19:45 2.5 Pseudo-panspermia 00:26:28 3 Extraterrestrial life 00:28:21 3.1 Hypotheses on extraterrestrial sources of illnesses 00:30:07 3.2 Case studies 00:34:22 3.3 Hoaxes 00:35:11 4 Extremophiles 00:38:21 4.1 Research in outer space 00:39:22 4.1.1 ERA 00:41:37 4.1.2 BIOPAN 00:42:43 4.1.3 EXOSTACK 00:43:38 4.1.4 EXPOSE 00:44:39 4.1.5 Tanpopo 00:45:38 5 Criticism Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Panspermia (from Ancient Greek πᾶν (pan), meaning 'all', and σπέρμα (sperma), meaning 'seed') is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by microorganisms. Distribution may have occurred between galaxies, and not to have been restricted to the limited scale of solar systems.Panspermia hypotheses propose (for example) that microscopic life-forms that can survive the effects of space (such as extremophiles) can become trapped in debris ejected into space after collisions between planets and small Solar System bodies that harbor life. Some organisms may travel dormant for an extended amount of time before colliding randomly with other planets or intermingling with protoplanetary disks. Under certain ideal impact circumstances (into a body of water, for example), and ideal conditions on a new planet's surfaces, it is possible that the surviving organisms could become active and begin to colonize their new environment. Panspermia studies concentrate not on how life began, but on the methods that may cause its distribution in the Universe.Pseudo-panspermia (sometimes called "soft panspermia" or "molecular panspermia") argues that the pre-biotic organic building-blocks of life originated in space, became incorporated in the solar nebula from which planets condensed, and were further—and continuously—distributed to planetary surfaces where life then emerged (abiogenesis). From the early 1970s, it started to become evident that interstellar dust included a large component of organic molecules. Interstellar molecules are formed by chemical reactions within very sparse interstellar or circumstellar clouds of dust and gas. The dust plays a critical role in shielding the molecules from the ionizing effect of ultraviolet radiation emitted by stars.The chemistry leading to life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the Universe was only 10 to 17 million years old. Though the presence of life is confirmed only on the Earth, some scientists think that extraterrestrial life is not only plausible, but probable or inevitable. Probes and instruments have started examining other planets and moons in the Solar System and in other planetary systems for evidence of having once supported simple life, and projects such as SETI attempt to detect radio transmissions from possible extraterrestrial civilizations.
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Ecology | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Ecology Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms with each other and with abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits. Biodiversity means the varieties of species, genes, and ecosystems, enhances certain ecosystem services. Ecology is not synonymous with environmentalism, natural history, or environmental science. It overlaps with the closely related sciences of evolutionary biology, genetics, and ethology. An important focus for ecologists is to improve the understanding of how biodiversity affects ecological function. Ecologists seek to explain: Life processes, interactions, and adaptations The movement of materials and energy through living communities The successional development of ecosystems The abundance and distribution of organisms and biodiversity in the context of the environment.Ecology has practical applications in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management (agroecology, agriculture, forestry, agroforestry, fisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic and applied science, and human social interaction (human ecology). For example, the Circles of Sustainability approach treats ecology as more than the environment 'out there'. It is not treated as separate from humans. Organisms (including humans) and resources compose ecosystems which, in turn, maintain biophysical feedback mechanisms that moderate processes acting on living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components of the planet. Ecosystems sustain life-supporting functions and produce natural capital like biomass production (food, fuel, fiber, and medicine), the regulation of climate, global biogeochemical cycles, water filtration, soil formation, erosion control, flood protection, and many other natural features of scientific, historical, economic, or intrinsic value. The word "ecology" ("Ökologie") was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel. Ecological thought is derivative of established currents in philosophy, particularly from ethics and politics. Ancient Greek philosophers such as Hippocrates and Aristotle laid the foundations of ecology in their studies on natural history. Modern ecology became a much more rigorous science in the late 19th century. Evolutionary concepts relating to adaptation and natural selection became the cornerstones of modern ecological theory.
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Bio-diversity | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity 00:03:59 1 History of terminology 00:05:05 2 Definitions 00:05:14 2.1 Prior term 00:05:33 2.2 Alternate terms 00:06:32 2.3 Wilcox 1982 00:07:15 2.4 Genetic: Wilcox 1984 00:07:37 2.5 United Nations 1992 00:08:17 2.6 Gaston and Spicer 2004 00:08:30 3 Distribution 00:09:40 3.1 Latitudinal gradients 00:11:04 3.2 Hotspots 00:13:28 4 Evolution 00:13:37 4.1 Chronology 00:15:42 4.2 Diversification 00:18:59 5 Ecosystem services 00:19:09 5.1 The balance of evidence 00:20:30 5.1.1 Services enhanced 00:20:39 5.1.1.1 Provisioning services 00:21:23 5.1.1.2 Regulating services 00:22:47 5.1.2 Services with mixed evidence 00:22:56 5.1.2.1 Provisioning services 00:23:06 5.1.2.2 Regulating services 00:24:37 5.1.3 Services hindered 00:24:46 5.1.3.1 Provisioning services 00:25:01 5.1.3.2 Regulating services 00:25:28 5.1.3.3 Provisioning services 00:25:54 5.1.3.4 Regulating services 00:27:49 5.2 Agriculture 00:31:45 5.3 Human health 00:34:54 5.4 Business and industry 00:35:28 5.5 Leisure, cultural and aesthetic value 00:36:48 5.6 Ecological services 00:38:39 6 Number of species 00:40:27 7 Measuring biodiversity 00:40:36 8 Species loss rates 00:43:28 9 Threats 00:49:44 9.1 Habitat destruction 00:51:50 9.2 Introduced and invasive species 00:55:36 9.2.1 Genetic pollution 00:56:39 9.3 Overexploitation 00:57:21 9.4 Hybridization, genetic pollution/erosion and food security 00:58:40 9.5 Climate change 01:00:12 9.6 Human overpopulation 01:01:35 10 The Holocene extinction 01:02:17 11 Conservation 01:03:27 11.1 Protection and restoration techniques 01:04:57 12 Protected areas 01:05:35 12.1 National parks 01:06:23 12.2 Wildlife sanctuary 01:07:00 12.3 Forest reserves 01:07:56 12.3.1 Steps to conserve the forest cover 01:08:36 12.4 Zoological parks 01:09:09 12.5 Botanical gardens 01:09:44 13 Resource allocation 01:10:25 14 Legal status 01:10:34 14.1 International 01:12:09 14.2 National level laws 01:13:50 15 Analytical limits 01:14:00 15.1 Taxonomic and size relationships 01:15:01 16 Diversity study (botany) 01:15:59 17 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8962346874051524 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity typically measures variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the equator, which is the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, and is richest in the tropics. These tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 percent of earth's surface, and contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity is usually highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest, and in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity generally tends to cluster in hotspots, and has been increasing through time, but will be likely to slow in the future.Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions. More than 99.9 percent of all species that ever lived on Earth, amounting to over five billion species, are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described. More recently, in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth currently with only one-thousandth of one percent described. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes. In comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC (trillion tons of carbon). In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal ...
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