This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbial_symbiosis_and_immunity 00:01:53 1 General principles 00:02:48 2 In the gastrointestinal tract 00:04:33 2.1 Regulation of immune responses 00:06:42 2.2 Development of isolated lymphoid tissues 00:08:36 2.3 Protection against pathogens 00:09:02 2.3.1 Immunoglobulin A 00:11:21 2.3.2 Antimicrobial peptides 00:13:54 2.3.3 Fortification fucose 00:14:49 3 On the epidermis 00:15:59 4 Role in disease 00:16:35 4.1 Cancer 00:17:39 4.2 Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) 00:20:02 4.3 Obesity Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7238050180124337 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= There are close and often long-term relationships between symbiotic microbes and their host's immune system. The immune system is a host defense system consisting of anatomical barriers, and physiological and cellular responses, which protect the host against harmful parasites while limiting inflammation by tolerating harmless symbionts. Humans are home to 1013 to 1014 bacteria. These bacteria can have almost any kind of relationship with the host, including mutually beneficial in a host's gut, or parasitic. Microbes can promote the development of the host's immune system in the gut and skin, and may help to prevent pathogens from invading. Some release anti-inflammatory products, protecting against parasitic gut microbes. Commensals promote the development of B cells that produce a protective antibody, Immunoglobulin A (IgA). This can neutralize pathogens and exotoxins, and promote the development of TH17 and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. Microbes trigger development of isolated lymphoid follicles in the small intestine, which are sites of mucosal immune response. Microbes can prevent growth of harmful pathogens by altering pH, consuming nutrients required for pathogen survival, and secreting toxins that inhibit growth of pathogens. However, microbes have been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and cancer.
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