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Smart Cards Security &amp; Applications
,Outline What is a smart card ?
History &amp; Contemporary Usage of Smart Cards. Types of Smart Cards Advantages Smart Card &amp; System Components Biometrics Security Applications ,What is a Smart Card ? A plastic card which contains
CPU, ROM, RAM, E2PROM
It has I/O and processing capability.
Of 6-8 contacts, 6 connected to the chip. These are Vcc, Vpp, Ground, Clock, Reset, Serial I/O.
,History Speculations about the first Smart card.
1968 - The idea of using plastic cards as the carrier for microchips was developed by Jergen Dethloff. 1970 - The first smart cards were introduced in Japan. 1974 - First patent by Roland Morena. 1979 - Motorola produced a smart card with a chip. 1984 - Microchips on Visa debit cards in France. 1990 - Philips offer 512 bit RSA signature in 1.5 sec. 1993 - France mandated microchips on all bank cards. ,History (cont’d) 1995 - Korea issues 1.5 million contactless smart cards for public transportation.
1996 - At the Atlanta Olympics, athletes, team members, and staffs were issued with contactless smart cards containing their identification number, biometrics, etc. 1996 - SGS Thompson offers RSA in 60 ms. 1997 - MS plans smart card login support for Win 98/NT 5.0. ,Current Trends and Issues Europe currently accounts for around 80% of the smart card market, with 16% in Asia, 3% in North America.
Several Asian countries have large smart card projects. Even in North America around 5 million cards were issued in 1996. 500 million cards in 1996, 2.5 billion in 2000. Telephone cards is currently the largest application. ,Current Trends and Issues (cont’d) Millions of Unit/Year
,Manufacturers Motorola - MSC0402
E2PROM 8K RAM 384 Bytes RNG Hitachi- H8/300
E2PROM 8K RAM 512 Bytes 2 I/O ports Others
Japan : NEC, Toshiba, Oki.
US : Texas Instruments, Atmel, Catalyst SGS-Thompson (France), Philips (Netherlands), Siemens (Germany). ,Not every Smart Card is Intelligent ! Memory Cards contain a memory with a fixed logic that enables to read from and write to this memory.
Cards, that use microcomputer ICs, are more commonly known as Smart Cards or Chip Cards. Chip Cards are active devices. ,Types of Smart Cards Contact Cards
must be inserted into a reader Contactless Cards powered by an RF signal using inductive coils. Combi Cards can be powered by insertion or RF. ,Advantages Cannot be easily duplicated,
Tamper proof due to hardware technology, Has processing power, Incorporate cryptographic techniques, Provide interactive authentication, Flexible storage for biometrics, identification, Organized information, ,Advantages (cont’d) Fraud reduction,
High memory capacity, Paperless transactions, Convenience. ,Problems Possible usage/registration fees,
Lack of internationally accepted standards, Liability issues if card is lost/stolen/misused, Downloading control, System designers are not well informed about how to make use of the cryptographic products, Inter-process protection in multi-application cards. Contact/contactless cards. ,Problems (cont’d) The difficulty of single terminal accepting all cards due to many card issuers and schemes.
Because of patents it is difficult to enter smart card market especially for chip and card manufacturers. Multi-functionality issues. ,Inside the Smart Cards BUS CPU MEMORY CLOCK PROTECTION RESET I/O
,Smart Card Components Carrier - PVC, PETP.
Chip Low-powerCMOS technology, operating at voltages between 2.2V and 5.5V: chips operating down to 1.5V and below are being designed.
1 micron is now common, 0.2 micron is aimed Microprocessor 8 bit, Motorola 6805, Intel 8051 based.
Clock speed up to 5 MHz. 16 bit processors are used in some newer chips. ,Smart Card Components (cont’d) Microprocessors (cont.)
RISC microcontrollers are available for smart cards
Coprocessors Multiprecision arithmetic operations (multiplication and exponentiation).