Home
Search results “Pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients definition”
Invasive Fungal Infections in the Immunocompromised Host -- Aliyah Baluch, MD.
 
37:33
Dr. Aliyah Baluch focuses on the work-up and treatment of invasive fungal infections in the immunosuppressed patients. Fungal infections have high morbidity and mortality, but can be hard to clinically diagnose. Invasive infections occur in ICU, Diabetes Mellitus, and immunocompromised patients. Dr. Baluch covers both aspects of Candida and non-Candida species infections, including risk factors, symptoms, prognosis, work-up, and treatment in patients with immunosuppressed patients. She includes a review of fungal structure and the mechanism of action of the drug classes used to treat them – Echinocandins, Polyenes, and Triazoles. She covers timelines that indicate which species to expect during each stage of immunosuppression and with different mechanisms of immunosuppression, including differences between stem cell and solid organ transplants. Biomarkers for treatment and international patterns of drug resistance are also discussed. IDPodcasts brings you essential updates in medical infectious diseases learning, brought to you from the University of South Florida’s Division of Infectious Disease. Stay in touch! Download our app on the Itunes store or find us below: Subscribe to our Youtube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/IDPodcasts Visit us on our webpage: http://www.idpodcasts.net/USF_ID_Podcasts/Main/Main.html Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ID-Podcasts-216965201680987/ Tweet to us: https://twitter.com/idpodcasts
Views: 2814 IDPodcasts
Cryptococcus Gattii - Joe Halliday, DO
 
32:50
Dr. Joseph Halliday discusses an emerging fungal pathogen, C. gattii and the recent outbreaks in the Northwest US and British Columbia. C. gattii is an encapsulated yeast most often seen in immunocompromised patients, but epidemic varieties infect immunocompetent patients as well. He also discusses the presence of endemic C. gattii, clinical manifestations of this fungal infection, diagnosis, management, and complications. IDPodcasts brings you essential updates in medical infectious diseases learning, brought to you from the University of South Florida’s Division of Infectious Disease. Stay in touch! Download our app on the Itunes store or find us below: Subscribe to our Youtube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/IDPodcasts Visit us on our webpage: http://www.idpodcasts.net/USF_ID_Podcasts/Main/Main.html Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ID-Podcasts-216965201680987/ Tweet to us: https://twitter.com/idpodcasts
Views: 971 IDPodcasts
Pneumonia - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology
 
11:15
What is pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can be caused by a variety of different pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mycobacteria. Find more videos at http://osms.it/more. Hundreds of thousands of current & future clinicians learn by Osmosis. We have unparalleled tools and materials to prepare you to succeed in school, on board exams, and as a future clinician. Sign up for a free trial at http://osms.it/more. Subscribe to our Youtube channel at http://osms.it/subscribe. Get early access to our upcoming video releases, practice questions, giveaways, and more when you follow us on social media: Facebook: http://osms.it/facebook Twitter: http://osms.it/twitter Instagram: http://osms.it/instagram Our Vision: Everyone who cares for someone will learn by Osmosis. Our Mission: To empower the world’s clinicians and caregivers with the best learning experience possible. Learn more here: http://osms.it/mission Medical disclaimer: Knowledge Diffusion Inc (DBA Osmosis) does not provide medical advice. Osmosis and the content available on Osmosis's properties (Osmosis.org, YouTube, and other channels) do not provide a diagnosis or other recommendation for treatment and are not a substitute for the professional judgment of a healthcare professional in diagnosis and treatment of any person or animal. The determination of the need for medical services and the types of healthcare to be provided to a patient are decisions that should be made only by a physician or other licensed health care provider. Always seek the advice of a physician or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you have regarding a medical condition.
Views: 531056 Osmosis
Cryptococcal meningitis
 
01:30
52-year-old female that presented with acute onset delirium and seizures. There is patchy ill-defined T2 FLAIR hyperintense signal involving the subcortical, deep, and periventricular white matter of the supratentorial compartment, worse in the frontal horn and periatrial regions. There is a more nodular region of T2 FLAIR hyperintense signal within the subcortical white matter of the posterolateral left temporal lobe and patchy T2 FLAIR hyperintense signal abnormality in the substance of the midbrain tegmentum extending into the tectal plate. There are no suspicious abnormalities on the diffusion-weighted images, and post contrast sequences demonstrate ill-defined enhancement along the perivascular spaces worse in the bilateral frontal regions. A differential of meningoencephalitis, demyelinating disease, and vasculitis was given. Lumbar puncture and CSF fluid analysis was performed demonstrating a cryptococcal meningitis. CNS cryptococcosis results from infection of the central nervous system the with the fungus cryptococcus neoformans. Disease is more commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals. Clinical presentation typically begins with meningitis or meningoencephalitis, headache, seizure or altered vision due to raised intracranial pressure. Common MR imaging features include enlarged perivascular spaces within the basal ganglia with a pseudocyst appearance. NMR303G For more, visit our website at http://ctisus.com
Views: 211 CTisus
Cryptococcal Meningitis - Dr. O.C. Abraham -FIC
 
03:35
A comprehensive 16 modules e-Course on the important aspects of fungal infections. Fungal Infections e-Course: https://fungalcourses.org/ Topics Covered: https://fungalcourses.org/local/staticpage/view.php?page=fungal-course-contents Faculty: https://fungalcourses.org/local/staticpage/view.php?page=faculty-fungal Supported & Sponsored by: FISF| Pfizer| Golden Tree Learning
Diagnostic Algorithm and Management of IFI in Immunocompromised Patients - Dr. Subhash Varma -FIC
 
03:35
A comprehensive 16 modules e-Course on the important aspects of fungal infections. Fungal Infections e-Course: https://fungalcourses.org/ Topics Covered: https://fungalcourses.org/local/staticpage/view.php?page=fungal-course-contents Faculty: https://fungalcourses.org/local/staticpage/view.php?page=faculty-fungal Supported & Sponsored by: FISF| Pfizer| Golden Tree Learning
Pneumocystis - Medical Definition and Pronunciation
 
01:40
Pneumocystis Pneumocystis: Pneumocystis jiroveci (previously classified as Pneumocystis carinii), the organism that causes pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). Pneumocystis jiroveci is found worldwide, in humans and animals. Serologic evidence indicates that most healthy children have been exposed to it by age 3 to 4. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) occurs in immunosuppressed individuals and in premature, malnourished infants. The symptoms of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) include dyspnea (difficulty breathing), nonproductive cough, and fever. Chest X-rays show infiltrates in both lungs. Typically, in untreated PCP, increasing pulmonary involvement leads to death. There is considerable debate over the classification of Pneumocystis. The diagnosis is confirmed by the identification of Pneumocystis jiroveci in induced sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) material (washings of the respiratory tree). In situations where these two techniques cannot be used, transbronchial biopsy or open lung biopsy may prove necessary. In addition, immunofluorescence microscopy using monoclonal antibodies can identify the organisms with higher sensitivity than conventional microscopy. Treatment is with medication. How to pronounce Pneumocystis definition of Pneumocystis audio dictionary How to say Pneumocystis What is the meaning of Pneumocystis Pronounce Pneumocystis Medical dictionary Medical definition of Pneumocystis
Views: 670 Medical Dictionary
Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis) : Causes, Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment, Prognosis
 
04:20
LIKE | COMMENT | SHARE | SUBSCRIBE For more info visit http://www.DiseasesAndTreatment.com/ ====================================== Zygomycosis ,Mucormycosis, causes of Zygomycosis, symptoms of Zygomycosis, treatment of Zygomycosis, diagnosis of Zygomycosis, Complications of Zygomycosis, risk factors of Zygomycosis, prevention of Zygomycosis, ======================================
Epidemiology of invasive fungal infections - Dr. Arunaloke Chakrabarti -FIC
 
03:35
A comprehensive 16 modules e-Course on the important aspects of fungal infections. Fungal Infections e-Course: https://fungalcourses.org/ Topics Covered: https://fungalcourses.org/local/staticpage/view.php?page=fungal-course-contents Faculty: https://fungalcourses.org/local/staticpage/view.php?page=faculty-fungal Supported & Sponsored by: FISF| Pfizer| Golden Tree Learning
Update on Mycology Papers for 2016 -- Wonhee So, Pharm.D
 
43:43
Dr. Wonhee So, ID clinical Pharmacist at Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, presents several important recent papers in the field of fungal infection diagnosis and management, and offers clinical commentary on their significance to the practice of infectious diseases in the immunocompromised patient. Dr. So covers such topics as the use of dexamethasone in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis, the radiologic diagnosis of lung mould infections in AML, the use of Isuvaconazole in Mucor infections, and the use of combination anti fungal therapy. Stay in touch! Download our app on the Itunes store or find us below: Subscribe to our Youtube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/IDPodcasts Visit us on our webpage: http://www.idpodcasts.net/USF_ID_Podc... Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ID-Podcasts-... Tweet to us: https://twitter.com/idpodcasts
Views: 345 IDPodcasts
VAE, VAP and PNEU Definition Changes for 2015
 
11:06
This Hot Topics presentation will provide you with updates to Ventilator Associated Event, or VAE, and Pneumonia and Ventilator Associated Pneumonia, or VAP, reporting protocols for 2015. Comments on this video are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/CommentPolicy.html This video can also be viewed at http://streaming.cdc.gov/vod.php?id=b496413f1cd2989d00faa51af931da4020141119125437234
Mucormycosis | MedStudy Infectious Disease 2017 Internal Medicine Preview
 
03:26
Dr. Fred Zar sheds some understanding on the rare fungal infection of mucormycosis.
Views: 1638 MedStudy
MUCORMYCOSIS FACTS
 
01:58
Thanks For Watching Subscribe to become a part of #TeamHealthApta SUBSCRIBE for awesome videos every day!: Rate, Comment, Share... Thanx and Enjoy the videos.
Views: 227 Health Apta
AIDS Infections and Malignancies | NCLEX Review 2019
 
15:13
*Subscribe for more great NCLEX videos: https://www.goo.gl/8mBXbY Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an acquired infection that causes severe immune dysfunction. HIV infection causes the person to be unusually susceptible to other life-threatening infections and malignancies. HIV is caused by a retrovirus that in its most serious form, results in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Click here: https://www.mometrix.com/academy/nclex-exam/drug-suffixes/ ► Visit: http://www.mometrix.com/academy ► Subscribe to more free test preparation videos: http://bit.ly/1dJH1yb ► Follow Mometrix Academy on Pinterest: http://bit.ly/1hZE2Jj ► Learn more About Us: http://bit.ly/1ewIADC
Views: 7665 NCLEX Study Guide
PNEUMONIA - WikiVidi Documentary
 
45:00
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. Severity is variable. Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by other microorganisms, certain medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, or a weak immune system. Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis. The disease may be classified by where it was acquired with community, hospital, or health care associated pneumonia. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Other methods of prevention include hand... http://www.wikividi.com ____________________________________ Shortcuts to chapters: 00:02:24: Signs and symptoms 00:04:40: Cause 00:06:03: Bacteria 00:07:47: Viruses 00:09:07: Fungi 00:09:56: Parasites 00:11:03: Noninfectious 00:11:32: Mechanisms 00:11:47: Viral 00:13:02: Bacterial 00:14:18: Diagnosis 00:16:24: Physical exam 00:17:18: Imaging 00:19:08: Microbiology 00:20:12: Classification 00:21:24: Community 00:21:47: Healthcare 00:23:07: Differential diagnosis 00:23:47: Prevention 00:24:16: Vaccination 00:25:28: Medications 00:25:56: Other 00:27:54: Management 00:29:32: Bacterial 00:31:34: Viral 00:32:50: Aspiration 00:33:34: Prognosis 00:34:42: Clinical prediction rules 00:34:59: Pleural effusion, empyema, and abscess 00:36:31: Respiratory and circulatory failure 00:37:27: Epidemiology 00:38:11: Children 00:39:16: History 00:43:06: Awareness 00:43:25: Costs ____________________________________ Copyright WikiVidi. Licensed under Creative Commons. Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumonia
Mucormycosis and its Management - Dr. Atul K Patel -FIC
 
03:35
A comprehensive 16 modules e-Course on the important aspects of fungal infections. Fungal Infections e-Course: https://fungalcourses.org/ Topics Covered: https://fungalcourses.org/local/staticpage/view.php?page=fungal-course-contents Faculty: https://fungalcourses.org/local/staticpage/view.php?page=faculty-fungal Supported & Sponsored by: FISF| Pfizer| Golden Tree Learning
Primary CNS Lymphoma
 
01:12
50ish-year-old female that presented with acute onset delirium and seizures. There is patchy ill-defined T2 FLAIR hyperintense signal involving the subcortical, deep, and periventricular white matter of the supratentorial compartment, worse in the frontal horn and periatrial regions. There is a more nodular region of T2 FLAIR hyperintense signal within the subcortical white matter of the posterolateral left temporal lobe and patchy T2 FLAIR hyperintense signal abnormality in the substance of the midbrain tegmentum extending into the tectal plate. There are no suspicious abnormalities on the diffusion-weighted images, and post contrast sequences demonstrate ill-defined enhancement along the perivascular spaces worse in the bilateral frontal regions. A differential of meningoencephalitis, demyelinating disease, and vasculitis was given. Lumbar puncture and CSF fluid analysis was performed demonstrating a cryptococcal meningitis. CNS cryptococcosis results from infection of the central nervous system the with the fungus cryptococcus neoformans. Disease is more commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals. Clinical presentation typically begins with meningitis or meningoencephalitis, headache, seizure or altered vision due to raised intracranial pressure. Common MR imaging features include enlarged perivascular spaces within the basal ganglia with a pseudocyst appearance. NMR302G For more, visit our website at http://ctisus.com
Views: 864 CTisus
We Were There - HIV/AIDS Lecture
 
01:26:18
On May 25, 2016, OADS offered the first in the “We Were There” lecture series. The inaugural event, “And the Band Played On…Early Days of the AIDS Epidemic in the United States: Views from Atlanta and Hollywood,” commemorated the 35th anniversary of the first AIDS MMWR article with a presentation by Dr. Harold Jaffe and Dr. Jim Curran. They shared their unique perspectives from their time leading CDC in the early response to HIV/AIDS, discussing their personal experiences and relating them to clips from the film And the Band Played On. Dr. Jaffe and Dr. Curran were then joined on stage by Dr. Walt Dowdle and Dr. Martha Rogers for a question and answer segment. Comments on this video are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/CommentPolicy.html This video can also be viewed at http://www.cdc.gov/wcms/videos/low-res/MISO/2016/we-were-there---hivaids-lecture-new_1215773.mp4
Fungal Infections and Antifungal Treatments Ringworm Candida Aspergillus Histoplasmosis
 
16:52
SKIP AHEAD: 0:32 – Intro to Fungi 2:17 – Systemic vs. Opportunistic Mycoses 4:52 – Coccidioidomycosis 5:41 – Histoplasmosis 6:23 – Blastomycosis 6:54 – Geographic Map of Systemic Fungi 7:26 – Cryptococcus 8:17 - Aspergillus 9:30 – PCP and Pneumocystis 10:06 - Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis & Rhizopus) 11:06 – Tineae (Athletes Foot, Ring worm, Tinea Versicolor …) 12:50 – Candida 14:07 – Sporothrix 14:29 – Azoles (Diflucan, Flucanazole, ketoconazole…) 15:20 – Amphotericin B & Nystatin 15:58 - Capsofungin & Micanofungin For the text and pictures in this video please go to my website http://www.stomponstep1.com/fungal-infections-antifungal-treatments-ringworm-candida-aspergillus-histoplasmosis/ Pictures Used: “Coccidioidomycosis_Spherule” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coccidioidomycosis_Spherule.jpg via Public Domain ” Histoplasmosis Capsulatum” by CDC available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histoplasmosis#/media/File:Histoplasmosis_capsulatum.jpg via Public Domain “Blastomyces dermatitidis” by CDC available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blastomycosis#/media/File:Blastomyces_dermatitidis_GMS.jpeg via Public Domain Derivative of “Blastomycosis cropped” by Joel Mills available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Blastomycosis_cropped.JPG via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution-Share Alike Derivative of “Cryptococcus neoformans using a light India ink staining” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cryptococcus_neoformans_using_a_light_India_ink_staining_preparation_PHIL_3771_lores.jpg via Public Domain Derivative of “Cryptoccocus Gram Film” by Graham Beards available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cryptococcus_Gram_film.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution Share Alike Derivative of “Aspergilloma complicating tuberculosis 2” by Yale Rosen available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aspergilloma_complicating_tuberculosis_2.jpg via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike “Aspergillosis, angioinvasive, intravascular” by Yale Rosen available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/pulmonary_pathology/5390967599 via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike Derivative of “Zygomycosis/mucormycosis” by Yale Rosen available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/pulmonary_pathology/5390897069 via Creative Commons 2.0 Atribution Share Alike Derivative of “Zygomycosis, Mucormycosis 1” by Yale Rosen available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zygomycosis,_mucormycosis_1.jpg via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike Derivative of “Zygomycosis” by Nephron available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zygomycosis.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution-Share Alike “Ringworm on the arm, or tinea corporis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ringworm_on_the_arm,_or_tinea_corporis_due_to_Trichophyton_mentagrophytes_PHIL_2938_lores.jpg via Public Domain “Teigne - Tinea capitis” by Grook Da Oger available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Teigne_-_Tinea_capitis.jpg via Creative Commons 4.0 International Attribution Share Alike License “Onychomycosis due to Trychophyton rubrum, right and left great toe” by CDC available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Onychomycosis_due_to_Trychophyton_rubrum,_right_and_left_great_toe_PHIL_579_lores.jpg via Public Domain “Tinea versicolor1” by Sarahrosenau available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tinea_versicolor1.jpg via Creative Commons 2.0 Attribution-Share Alike “Candida albicans” by Y Tambe available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Candida_albicans.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Unported Attribution-Share Alike License “Human tongue infected with oral candidiasis” by James Heilman available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_tongue_infected_with_oral_candidiasis.jpg via Creative Commons 3.0 Unported Attribution-Share Alike
Views: 15464 Stomp On Step 1
INTRACRANIAL SEPTIC EMBOLI
 
07:43
Intracranial cerebral abscess Epidemiology and pathogenesis Cerebral abscesses are focal suppurative intracranial infections that start as an area of focal cerebritis, eventually demarcating into discrete collections of encapsulated pus surrounded by a well-vascularized capsule. They progress through four classic stages: early cerebritis, late cerebritis, early capsular, and late capsular. In the later stage, there is a rim of granulation tissue surrounded by increasing angiogenic neovascularity, which causes increasing cerebral edema. The most common etiology is direct extension from the sinuses, eyes, and dental infections, followed by hematogenous seeding (more often multifocal due to endocarditis or chronic pulmonary infections) or rarely direct trauma (sometimes iatrogenic). Up to 25% to 35% of cases in children may have an unknown, cryptic source. Increased risk is associated with immunosuppression, congenital heart conditions, including patent foramen ovale and arteriovenous fistulas. Numerous different pathogens are associated, most commonly mixed species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis, Actinomyces, HACEK bacteria, gram-negative species in infants, and group B streptococcus in nenonates. In immunocompromised patients, additional pathogens include toxoplasmosis, Nocardia, Candida, Listeria, Mycobacterium, and Aspergillus. The incidence is estimated at 0.3 to 0.9 per 100,000 with a 2-3:1 preponderance in males compared with females. Clinical presentation The classic triad, including headache (approximately 69%), fever (53%), and focal neurologic deficit (48%), is seen in only approximately 20% of cases, with symptoms occurring about eight days prior to diagnosis. Other neurological deficits include seizures (25%) and altered mental status (48%). The abrupt onset of meningeal signs with worsening headache and neurological status is associated with rupture of an abscess into the ventricular space causing ventriculitis, which is associated with high mortality. Imaging features Approximately 80% of brain abscesses are solitary, and they are most commonly seen in the frontal and temporal lobes. Early cerebritis is often invisible on CT but may demonstrate an area of poorly marginated subcortical hypodensity. Late cerebritis and early capsular stages will demonstrate irregular rim enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT and MRI. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI in the late capsular stage will show a capsular ring that is T1 hyperintense and T1 hypointense, with a complete ring of enhancement with a central area of necrosis. In later stages, there will also be a large amount of surrounding vasogenic edema due to vascular permeability (seen as white-matter hypoattenuation on CT and high T2/FLAIR signal on MRI). On MRI, the central necrotic area is hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T1 with restricted diffusion. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) may show a low-intensity rim of increased susceptibility that mostly overlaps with the contrast-enhancing rim, sometimes with a double rim sign (two concentric rims inside and outside abscess cavity), distinguishing it from glioblastoma. In some cases, MRI spectroscopy and MR perfusion can be helpful for distinguishing an abscess from a high-grade glioma with a necrotic core. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) is elevated in high-grade gliomas and reduced in abscesses, while elevated succinate peak is specific for an abscess. Treatment and prognosis Intracranial abscesses progress rapidly and lead to devastating and permanent neurological deficits. The mainstay treatment is with neurosurgical intervention to drain the collection, either by aspiration or craniotomy. This is combined with IV antibiotics, which is first broad and then tailored to the specific organisms involved. Given the high risk of seizures, seizure prophylaxis is recommended in all patients. In cases of abscesses secondary to septic emboli from cardiac infections, heart valve surgery may be necessary to treat persistent vegetations. References Bonfield CM, Sharma J, Dobson S. Pediatric intracranial abscesses. J Infection. 2015;71(suppl 1):S42-S46. Shih RY, Koeller KK. Bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections of the central nervous system: Radiologic-pathologic correlation and historical perspectives. Radiographics. 2015;35(4):1141-1169. Smirniotopoulos JG, Murphy FM, Rushing EJ, Rees JH, Schroeder JW. Patterns of contrast enhancement in the brain and meninges. Radiographics. 2007;27(2):525-551. Sonneville R, Ruimy R, Benzonana N, et al. An update on bacterial brain abscess in immunocompetent patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017;(23(9): 614-619.
Views: 135 HPRV By Dr Chor Ath
Mucormycosis and pythiosis - How can we improve diagnosis and patient outcomes?
 
00:37
Mucormycosis and pythiosis, both rare and difficult-to-diagnose infections, take the spotlight in this MMTN lecture by Dr Ariya Chindamporn (Thailand). How can we improve diagnosis and patient outcomes? The full lecture video is available at: http://bit.ly/2DvGB6A
Antibiotic resistance | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:01:43
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antimicrobial_resistance 00:04:05 1 Definition 00:04:39 2 Overview 00:05:48 3 Causes 00:07:23 3.1 Human medicine 00:11:33 3.2 Veterinary medicine 00:12:38 3.3 Natural occurrence 00:14:42 3.4 Water pollution 00:17:12 4 Prevention 00:18:02 4.1 Duration of antibiotics 00:18:42 4.2 Monitoring and mapping 00:19:56 4.3 Limiting antibiotic use 00:21:12 4.3.1 At the hospital level 00:21:50 4.3.2 At the level of GP 00:23:19 4.3.3 At the individual level 00:23:45 4.3.4 Country examples 00:24:24 4.4 Water, sanitation, hygiene 00:27:06 4.5 Industrial wastewater treatment 00:27:31 4.6 Management in animal use 00:27:40 4.6.1 Europe 00:28:40 4.6.2 United States 00:30:07 4.7 Global action plans and awareness 00:31:39 4.7.1 Antibiotic Awareness Week 00:32:43 5 Mechanisms and organisms 00:32:53 5.1 Fundamentals 00:37:02 5.2 Bacteria 00:39:38 5.3 Viruses 00:40:49 5.4 Fungi 00:42:09 5.5 Parasites 00:43:34 6 History 00:45:36 7 Society and culture 00:46:47 7.1 Legal frameworks 00:47:46 7.1.1 U.S. 00:50:21 7.2 Policies 00:50:57 8 Further research 00:51:14 8.1 Vaccines 00:52:23 8.2 Alternating therapy 00:53:28 8.3 Development of new drugs 00:58:12 8.4 Rapid diagnostics 00:59:40 8.5 Phage therapy Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8142995496424837 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-F "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe. The term antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR) is a subset of AMR, as it applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics. Resistant microbes are more difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses of antimicrobials. These approaches may be more expensive, more toxic or both. Microbes resistant to multiple antimicrobials are called multidrug resistant (MDR). Those considered extensively drug resistant (XDR) or totally drug resistant (TDR) are sometimes called "superbugs".Resistance arises through one of three mechanisms: natural resistance in certain types of bacteria, genetic mutation, or by one species acquiring resistance from another. All classes of microbes can develop resistance. Fungi develop antifungal resistance. Viruses develop antiviral resistance. Protozoa develop antiprotozoal resistance, and bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. Resistance can appear spontaneously because of random mutations. However, extended use of antimicrobials appears to encourage selection for mutations which can render antimicrobials ineffective.Preventive measures include only using antibiotics when needed, thereby stopping misuse of antibiotics or antimicrobials. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are preferred over broad-spectrum antibiotics when possible, as effectively and accurately targeting specific organisms is less likely to cause resistance. For people who take these medications at home, education about proper use is essential. Health care providers can minimize spread of resistant infections by use of proper sanitation and hygiene, including handwashing and disinfecting between patients, and should encourage the same of the patient, visitors, and family members.Rising drug resistance is caused mainly by use of antimicrobials in humans and other animals, and spread of resistant strains between the two. Growing resistance has also been linked to dumping of inadequately treated effluents from the pharmaceutical industry, especially in countries where bulk drugs are manufactured. Antibiotics increase selective pressure in bacterial populations, causing vulnerable bacteria to die; this increases the percentage of resistant bacteria which continue growing. Even at very low levels of antibiotic, resistant bacteria can have a growth advantage and grow faster than vulnerable bacteria. With resistance to antibiotics becoming more common there is greater need fo ...
Views: 43 wikipedia tts
Pathogen | Wikipedia audio article
 
12:34
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pathogen 00:01:39 1 Pathogenicity 00:02:37 1.1 Context-dependent pathogenicity 00:03:37 1.2 Related concepts 00:03:46 1.2.1 Virulence 00:04:36 1.2.2 Transmission 00:04:59 2 Types of pathogens 00:05:09 2.1 Bacterial 00:06:49 2.2 Viral 00:07:33 2.3 Fungal 00:08:03 2.4 Prionic 00:08:32 2.5 Other parasites 00:08:52 2.6 Algal 00:09:18 3 Treatment and health care 00:10:04 4 Sexual interactions 00:12:07 5 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8050529842616599 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= In biology, a pathogen (Greek: πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of"), in the oldest and broadest sense, is anything that can produce disease. A pathogen may also be referred to as an infectious agent, or simply a germ. The term pathogen came into use in the 1880s. Typically, the term is used to describe an infectious microorganism or agent, such as a virus, bacterium, protozoan, prion, viroid, or fungus. Small animals, such as certain kinds of worms and insect larvae, can also produce disease. However, these animals are usually, in common parlance, referred to as parasites rather than pathogens. The scientific study of microscopic, pathogenic organisms is called microbiology, while the study of disease that may include these pathogens is called pathology. Parasitology, meanwhile, is the scientific study of parasites and the organisms that host them. There are several pathways through which pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen. Diseases in humans that are caused by infectious agents are known as pathogenic diseases, though not all diseases are caused by pathogens. Some diseases, such as Huntington's disease, are caused by inheritance of abnormal genes.
Views: 0 wikipedia tts
Pneumonia | Wikipedia audio article
 
47:28
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Pneumonia Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. Severity is variable.Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by other microorganisms, certain medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, or a weak immune system. Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis. The disease may be classified by where it was acquired with community, hospital, or health care associated pneumonia.Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Other methods of prevention include handwashing and not smoking. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Pneumonia believed to be due to bacteria is treated with antibiotics. If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is generally hospitalized. Oxygen therapy may be used if oxygen levels are low.Pneumonia affects approximately 450 million people globally (7% of the population) and results in about 4 million deaths per year. Pneumonia was regarded by William Osler in the 19th century as "the captain of the men of death". With the introduction of antibiotics and vaccines in the 20th century, survival improved. Nevertheless, in developing countries, and among the very old, the very young, and the chronically ill, pneumonia remains a leading cause of death. Pneumonia often shortens suffering among those already close to death and has thus been called "the old man's friend".
Views: 18 wikipedia tts
Pneumonia | Wikipedia audio article
 
52:14
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumonia 00:02:04 1 Signs and symptoms 00:04:13 2 Cause 00:06:06 2.1 Bacteria 00:07:40 2.2 Viruses 00:08:57 2.3 Fungi 00:09:54 2.4 Parasites 00:11:00 2.5 Noninfectious 00:11:41 3 Mechanisms 00:12:32 3.1 Bacterial 00:13:46 3.2 Viral 00:15:03 4 Diagnosis 00:17:42 4.1 Physical exam 00:18:36 4.2 Imaging 00:21:09 4.3 Microbiology 00:22:49 4.4 Classification 00:23:56 4.4.1 Community 00:24:23 4.4.2 Healthcare 00:24:52 4.4.2.1 Hospital 00:25:26 4.4.2.2 Ventilator 00:25:51 4.5 Differential diagnosis 00:27:03 5 Prevention 00:27:35 5.1 Vaccination 00:29:35 5.2 Medications 00:30:06 5.3 Other 00:32:30 6 Management 00:34:23 6.1 Bacterial 00:38:11 6.2 Viral 00:39:26 6.3 Aspiration 00:40:09 7 Prognosis 00:41:48 7.1 Clinical prediction rules 00:42:21 7.2 Pleural effusion, empyema, and abscess 00:43:48 7.3 Respiratory and circulatory failure 00:44:52 8 Epidemiology 00:45:41 8.1 Children 00:46:52 9 History 00:50:34 10 Society and culture 00:50:43 10.1 Awareness 00:51:06 10.2 Costs Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9424961554360147 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing. Severity is variable.Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by other microorganisms, certain medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, or a weak immune system. Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis. The disease may be classified by where it was acquired with community, hospital, or health care associated pneumonia.Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Other methods of prevention include handwashing and not smoking. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Pneumonia believed to be due to bacteria is treated with antibiotics. If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is generally hospitalized. Oxygen therapy may be used if oxygen levels are low.Pneumonia affects approximately 450 million people globally (7% of the population) and results in about 4 million deaths per year. Pneumonia was regarded by William Osler in the 19th century as "the captain of the men of death". With the introduction of antibiotics and vaccines in the 20th century, survival improved. Nevertheless, in developing countries, and among the very old, the very young, and the chronically ill, pneumonia remains a leading cause of death. Pneumonia often shortens suffering among those already close to death and has thus been called "the old man's friend".
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
Infectious disease | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:03:45
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infection 00:02:11 1 Classification 00:02:20 1.1 Subclinical versus clinical (latent versus apparent) 00:04:21 1.2 Primary versus opportunistic 00:07:45 1.2.1 Other types of infection 00:08:37 1.3 Infectious or not 00:10:07 1.4 Contagiousness 00:11:29 1.5 By anatomic location 00:12:13 2 Signs and symptoms 00:13:10 2.1 Bacterial or viral 00:13:36 3 Pathophysiology 00:14:13 3.1 Colonization 00:18:13 3.2 Disease 00:19:55 3.3 Transmission 00:22:23 4 Diagnosis 00:24:11 4.1 Symptomatic diagnostics 00:25:00 4.2 Microbial culture 00:27:55 4.3 Microscopy 00:30:25 4.4 Biochemical tests 00:33:58 4.5 PCR-based diagnostics 00:35:43 4.6 Metagenomic sequencing 00:37:28 4.7 Indication of tests 00:39:24 5 Prevention 00:43:25 5.1 Immunity 00:45:35 5.1.1 Host genetic factors 00:47:06 6 Treatments 00:48:43 7 Epidemiology 00:49:53 7.1 Historic pandemics 00:51:57 7.2 Emerging diseases 00:54:33 8 History 00:57:31 8.1 Medical specialists 00:58:49 9 Society and culture 01:00:36 10 Fossil record 01:01:49 11 Outer space 01:02:44 12 See also 01:02:53 13 Notes and references 01:03:03 14 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9746772367071261 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection. Infections are caused by infectious agents (pathogens) including: Viruses and related agents such as viroids and prions Bacteria Fungi, further subclassified into: Ascomycota, including yeasts such as Candida, filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Pneumocystis species, and dermatophytes, a group of organisms causing infection of skin and other superficial structures in humans. Basidiomycota, including the human-pathogenic genus Cryptococcus Parasites, which are usually divided into unicelllular organisms (e.g. malaria, Toxoplasma, Babesia) macroparasites (worms or helminths) including nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, tapeworms (cestodes), and flukes (trematodes, such as schistosomiasis) Arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, can also cause human disease, which conceptually are similar to infections, but invasion of a human or animal body by these macroparasites is usually termed infestation. ( Diseases caused by helminths, which are also macroparasites, are sometimes termed infestations as well, but are sometimes called infections.)Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response.Specific medications used to treat infections include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antihelminthics. Infectious diseases resulted in 9.2 million deaths in 2013 (about 17% of all deaths). The branch of medicine that focuses on infections is referred to as infectious disease.
Views: 6 wikipedia tts
Human microbiota | Wikipedia audio article
 
39:59
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_microbiota 00:01:51 1 Terminology 00:02:27 2 Relative numbers 00:03:42 3 Study 00:06:26 3.1 Shotgun Sequencing 00:06:56 3.1.1 Collection of samples and DNA extraction 00:07:35 3.1.2 Preparation of the library and sequencing 00:08:04 3.1.3 Metagenome assembly 00:08:40 3.1.4 Contig binning 00:09:22 3.1.5 Analysis after the processing 00:10:13 3.2 Marker gene analysis 00:13:09 3.3 Phylogenetic Analysis 00:14:46 4 Types 00:14:55 4.1 Bacteria 00:17:23 4.2 Archaea 00:18:07 4.3 Fungi 00:18:37 4.4 Viruses 00:19:05 5 Anatomical areas 00:19:15 5.1 Skin 00:20:43 5.2 Conjunctiva 00:21:32 5.3 Gut 00:24:33 5.4 Urethra and bladder 00:25:20 5.5 Vagina 00:26:55 5.6 Placenta 00:27:16 5.7 Uterus 00:27:44 5.8 Oral cavity 00:31:11 5.9 Lung 00:32:46 5.10 Biliary tract 00:33:22 6 Disease and death 00:33:40 6.1 Cancer 00:36:25 6.2 Inflammatory bowel disease 00:36:58 6.3 Human immunodeficiency virus 00:38:08 6.4 Death 00:38:31 7 Environmental health 00:38:55 8 Migration 00:39:22 9 See also 00:39:31 10 Bibliography Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9308021918324354 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts. They include bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses. Though micro-animals can also live on the human body, they are typically excluded from this definition. The human microbiome refers specifically to the collective genomes of resident microorganisms.Humans are colonized by many microorganisms; the traditional estimate is that the average human body is inhabited by ten times as many non-human cells as human cells, but more recent estimates have lowered that ratio to 3:1 or even to approximately the same number. Some microorganisms that colonize humans are commensal, meaning they co-exist without harming humans; others have a mutualistic relationship with their human hosts. Conversely, some non-pathogenic microorganisms can harm human hosts via the metabolites they produce, like trimethylamine, which the human body converts to trimethylamine N-oxide via FMO3-mediated oxidation. Certain microorganisms perform tasks that are known to be useful to the human host but the role of most of them is not well understood. Those that are expected to be present, and that under normal circumstances do not cause disease, are sometimes deemed normal flora or normal microbiota.The Human Microbiome Project took on the project of sequencing the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the microbiota that normally inhabit the skin, mouth, nose, digestive tract, and vagina. It reached a milestone in 2012 when it published its initial results.
Views: 13 wikipedia tts
Human microbiome | Wikipedia audio article
 
42:52
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_microbiota 00:01:58 1 Terminology 00:02:37 2 Relative numbers 00:03:55 3 Study 00:06:50 3.1 Shotgun Sequencing 00:07:23 3.1.1 Collection of samples and DNA extraction 00:08:05 3.1.2 Preparation of the library and sequencing 00:08:36 3.1.3 Metagenome assembly 00:09:15 3.1.4 Contig binning 00:09:59 3.1.5 Analysis after the processing 00:10:53 3.2 Marker gene analysis 00:14:02 3.3 Phylogenetic Analysis 00:15:46 4 Types 00:15:55 4.1 Bacteria 00:18:34 4.2 Archaea 00:19:21 4.3 Fungi 00:19:53 4.4 Viruses 00:20:23 5 Anatomical areas 00:20:33 5.1 Skin 00:22:07 5.2 Conjunctiva 00:22:59 5.3 Gut 00:26:13 5.4 Urethra and bladder 00:27:04 5.5 Vagina 00:28:47 5.6 Placenta 00:29:08 5.7 Uterus 00:29:39 5.8 Oral cavity 00:33:24 5.9 Lung 00:35:06 5.10 Biliary tract 00:35:45 6 Disease and death 00:36:05 6.1 Cancer 00:39:00 6.2 Inflammatory bowel disease 00:39:36 6.3 Human immunodeficiency virus 00:40:51 6.4 Death 00:41:19 7 Environmental health 00:41:45 8 Migration 00:42:14 9 See also 00:42:23 10 Bibliography Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.873621949970991 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts. They include bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses. Though micro-animals can also live on the human body, they are typically excluded from this definition. The human microbiome refers specifically to the collective genomes of resident microorganisms.Humans are colonized by many microorganisms; the traditional estimate is that the average human body is inhabited by ten times as many non-human cells as human cells, but more recent estimates have lowered that ratio to 3:1 or even to approximately the same number. Some microorganisms that colonize humans are commensal, meaning they co-exist without harming humans; others have a mutualistic relationship with their human hosts. Conversely, some non-pathogenic microorganisms can harm human hosts via the metabolites they produce, like trimethylamine, which the human body converts to trimethylamine N-oxide via FMO3-mediated oxidation. Certain microorganisms perform tasks that are known to be useful to the human host but the role of most of them is not well understood. Those that are expected to be present, and that under normal circumstances do not cause disease, are sometimes deemed normal flora or normal microbiota.The Human Microbiome Project took on the project of sequencing the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the microbiota that normally inhabit the skin, mouth, nose, digestive tract, and vagina. It reached a milestone in 2012 when it published its initial results.
Views: 5 wikipedia tts