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Cryptography: The Science of Making and Breaking Codes
 
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There are lots of different ways to encrypt a message, from early, simple ciphers to the famous Enigma machine. But it’s tough to make a code truly unbreakable. Hosted by: Michael Aranda ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters -- we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Justin Ove, John Szymakowski, Fatima Iqbal, Justin Lentz, David Campos, and Chris Peters. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/scishow Or help support us by becoming our patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow Sources: http://www.vectorsite.net/ttcode_04.html#m3 http://www.simonsingh.net/The_Black_Chamber/crackingprinciple.html http://book.itep.ru/depository/crypto/Cryptography_history.pdf http://www.cs.trincoll.edu/~crypto/historical/gronsfeld.html http://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/vpns/history-encryption-730 http://ftp.stmarys-ca.edu/jsauerbe/m10s11/chapter5.pdf http://www.turing.org.uk/scrapbook/ww2.html http://enigma.louisedade.co.uk/howitworks.html http://www.codesandciphers.org.uk/enigma/example1.htm http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/military/how-enigma-works.html http://www.cs.miami.edu/~burt/learning/Csc609.051/notes/02.html
Views: 823504 SciShow
Cryptography: Crash Course Computer Science #33
 
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Today we’re going to talk about how to keep information secret, and this isn’t a new goal. From as early as Julius Caesar’s Caesar cipher to Mary, Queen of Scots, encrypted messages to kill Queen Elizabeth in 1587, theres has long been a need to encrypt and decrypt private correspondence. This proved especially critical during World War II as Allan Turing and his team at Bletchley Park attempted to decrypt messages from Nazi Enigma machines, and this need has only grown as more and more information sensitive tasks are completed on our computers. So today, we’re going to walk you through some common encryption techniques such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange, and RSA which are employed to keep your information safe, private, and secure. Note: In October of 2017, researchers released a viable hack against WPA2, known as KRACK Attack, which uses AES to ensure secure communication between computers and network routers. The problem isn't with AES, which is provably secure, but with the communication protocol between router and computer. In order to set up secure communication, the computer and router have to agree through what's called a "handshake". If this handshake is interrupted in just the right way, an attacker can cause the handshake to fault to an insecure state and reveal critical information which makes the connection insecure. As is often the case with these situations, the problem is with an implementation, not the secure algorithm itself. Our friends over at Computerphile have a great video on the topic: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYtvjijATa4 Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios Want to know more about Carrie Anne? https://about.me/carrieannephilbin The Latest from PBS Digital Studios: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqJzeaJAV15Tq0tZ1vKj7ZV Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet? Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrash... Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/TheCrashCourse Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids
Views: 231744 CrashCourse
Famous UNCRACKED Codes That STILL Exist!
 
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Check out these famous uncracked codes that still exist! From secret riddles to unsolved mysteries, this top 10 list contains cryptography that's still unexplained today! Subscribe For New Videos! http://goo.gl/UIzLeB Watch our "Most CRAZY Things Ancient Egyptians Did!" video here: https://youtu.be/T0zERiMJFQo Watch our "Most CRAZY Things Ancient Greeks Did!" video here: https://youtu.be/-JkhVvn_dow Watch our "REAL Evidence That Aliens EXIST!" video here: https://youtu.be/dtwJT2eilx0 10. Chinese Gold Bar Cipher In 1933, General Wang in Shanghai, China, allegedly received seven gold bars. These gold bars appear to represent metal certificates related to a bank deposit with a U.S. Bank. The gold bars themselves have pictures, Chinese writing, some form of script writing, and cryptograms in Latin letters. Not surprisingly, experts debate concerning the validity of the claim for the deposit. It may help to resolve the dispute if someone can decipher the cryptograms on the bars. Someone translated the Chinese writing, which discusses a transaction in excess of $300,000,000. It also refers to these gold bars, which weigh a total of 1.8 kilograms. The rest remains a mystery. 9. D’agapeyeff Cipher The D’Agapeyeff cipher is an as-yet unbroken cipher that appears in the first edition of Codes and Ciphers, an elementary book on cryptography published by the Russian-born English cartographer Alexander D’Agapeyeff in 1939. Offered as a “challenge cipher” at the end of the book, it was not included in later editions. D’Agapeyeff supposedly admitted later to having forgotten how he had encrypted it. Some argue that the failure of all attempts at decryption is due to D’Agapeyeff incorrectly encrypting the original text. However, it has also been argued that the cipher may still be successfully attacked using computational methods such as genetic algorithms. Whatever those are. 8. The Beale Ciphers If this next one isn’t a hoax then the person who solves it could become very, very rich. This question of authenticity has bothered cryptoanalysts ever since these ciphers first appeared in an 1885 pamphlet called The Beale Papers, which recounts a fantastic story of buried treasure. According to the pamphlet, a man named Thomas Jefferson Beale, a man no one has proven even existed, discovered gold during an 1816 expedition into the American West. The treasure, as the story goes, was then transported to Bedford County, Virginia, and buried. The gold's secret location was allegedly provided by three cryptograms, of which one was already cracked. Unfortunately, the cracked code only detailed the type of treasure there and not a specific location. To find out anything more specific would involve cracking the two other ciphers. The problem is that figuring it out requires comparing them to unknown historical texts. The decrypted cipher, for example, used the Declaration of Independence. The first number, 115, corresponds with the first letter of the 115th word in the Declaration: "instituted." That means 115 stands for "I." So what are the translation texts for the other two ciphers? No one knows, and they may very well not exist at all. There are also questions over whether the other ciphers may just be unintelligible, as if the whole thing was made up by the pamphlet's author decades after the gold was supposed to have been discovered. 7. Dorabella In 1897, a 40-year-old composer named Edward Elgar sent an encrypted letter to 23-year-old Dora Penny, the stepdaughter of one of his friends. Why he sent it is part of the mystery and can only be answered if anyone ever cracks the code. To figure it out would involve deciphering 87 characters all made of strings of semi-circles oriented in different directions. Attempts at translating the cipher yielded a message just short of gibberish. Experts say that shorter ciphers are always harder to solve. Another theory has it that the code is an example of a distinct private language shared only between Penny and Elgar. If that's the case, then solving it may be simply impossible, since no one but them would understand the references. In 2016, a police officer in Cleveland believes he’s cracked at least part of the code, revealing a line of melody. Inspector Mark Pitt read 100 books on the Dorabella Cipher; he hopes to write one on his discoveries. Whether or not that’s really the meaning, though, remains to be seen. Origins Explained is the place to be to find all the answers to your questions, from mysterious events and unsolved mysteries to everything there is to know about the world and its amazing animals!
Views: 1354152 Origins Explained
Unsolved - The History and Mystery of the World’s Greatest Ciphers
 
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Craig Bauer, author of Unsolved Ciphers and editor of Cryptologia, will examine these and other vexing ciphers yet to be cracked. Some may reveal the identity of a spy or serial killer, provide the location of buried treasure, or expose a secret society—while others may be elaborate hoaxes. Guests are invited to stay after his talk for some collaborative cipher-breaking fun. ----------------------------------------------------------------- Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/IntlSpyMuseum Twitter: https://twitter.com/intlspymuseum SpyCast: https://audioboom.com/channel/spycast
Views: 11523 IntlSpyMuseum
Cicada 3301: An Internet Mystery
 
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In this video I explore an elaborate cryptographic internet puzzle orchestrated by a mysterious individual or group known as Cicada 3301. Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lemmino Subreddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/lemmino Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/lemmin0 Facebook: https://www.fb.com/lemmin0 Discord: https://www.discord.gg/lemmino The puzzle I hid in this video has been solved: https://www.lemmi.no/post/my-latest-puzzle [Music] Own work Erang - Forever Lost In An Endless Dream https://erang.bandcamp.com/track/forever-lost-in-an-endless-dream Erang - The Highway Goes Ever On https://erang.bandcamp.com/track/the-highway-goes-ever-on Erang - Silent Bones https://erang.bandcamp.com/track/silent-bones-2 Cicada 3301 - The Instar Emergence https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YA1fONCH-CY Cicada 3301 - Interconnectedness https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ActGqDxBD4A [References] https://www.lemmi.no/post/cicada-3301#refs
Views: 13632936 LEMMiNO
Bletchley Park - Code Breaking's Forgotten Genius
 
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This BBC documentary tells the story of Gordon Welchman, one of the key contributors of WW2 and cold war code breaking. The story of Alan Turing has gone public years ago, this documentary explains why Gordon Welchman's achievements were kept a secret for all these years.
Views: 9853 Redlinemeister
Sexpionage (Cold War Spy Documentary) | Timeline
 
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Check out our new website for more incredible history documentaries: HD and ad-free. http://bit.ly/2O6zUsK Sexpionage tells the stories of two women who were seduced by secret agents working for the East German intelligence service, the Stasi. At the height of the Cold War the Stasi would regularly despatch their agents to the West German capital, Bonn, armed with the task of forming long term relationships with single women working at embassies or government ministries. These women were unwittingly tapped for top secret information which was then passed on to the East. Both Gabriele Kliem and Margaret Hike had no idea that their lovers were spies until both women were arrested for treason. This film tells the story of the years they spent with their secret agent lovers and explores the feelings they are left with after the most significant relationships of their lives were revealed to be a sham. Content licensed from DRG. Produced by Agenda.
History - Secrets Exposed - Cryptology - WWII Code breaking
 
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From VOA Learning English, this is EXPLORATIONS in Special English. I'm Jeri Watson. And I'm Jim Tedder. Today we visit a small museum in the American state of Maryland. It is called the National Cryptologic Museum. There you will find information that was once secret. The National Cryptologic Museum is on Fort George G. Meade, a military base near Washington, DC. It tells the story of cryptology and the men and women who have worked in this unusual profession. The word cryptology comes from the Greek "kryptos logos." It means "hidden word." Cryptology is writing or communicating in ways designed to hide the meaning of your words. The museum has many examples of equipment that was once used to make information secret. It also has equipment that was developed to read secret messages. The method of hiding exact meanings is called coding. People have used secret codes throughout history to protect important information. One display at the museum explains American attempts to read Japanese military information during World War Two. Japan's Navy used special machines to change its written information into secret codes. This coded information was then sent by radio to navy ships and military bases. The information included secret military plans and orders. The leaders of the Japanese Navy believed no one could read or understand the secret codes. They were wrong. Americans were working very hard to learn the Japanese code. The United States urgently needed to break the code to learn what Japan was planning. In 1940, an American woman named Genevieve Grotjan found some information being repeated in Japanese coded messages. At the time, she was a civilian working for the government in Washington, DC. Her discovery helped the United States understand secret Japanese diplomatic messages. After the United States understood the code, it was possible to study messages from the Japanese ambassador to Germany and to his supervisors in Japan. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, an American Naval officer named Joseph Rochefort struggled to understand the Japanese navy code. He worked on the American base at Pearl Harbor. It was early in 1942. The American naval commander in the Pacific Ocean was Chester Nimitz. His forces were much smaller than the Japanese Naval forces. And the Japanese had been winning many victories. Joseph Rochefort had worked for several months to read the secret Japanese Naval code called JN-25. If he could understand enough of the code, he would be able to give Admiral Nimitz very valuable information. The admiral could use this information to plan for battle. By the early part of the year, Mr. Rochefort and the men who worked with him could read a little less than 20 percent of the Japanese JN-25 code. Joseph Rochefort had the evidence he needed. "AF" was now known to be the island of Midway. He also told Admiral Nimitz the Japanese would attack Midway on June third. The admiral secretly moved his small force to an area near Midway and waited for the Japanese Navy. The battle that followed was a huge American victory. Experts now say the Battle of Midway was the beginning of the American victory in the Pacific. That victory was possible because Joseph Rochefort learned to read enough of the Japanese code to discover the meaning of the letters "AF." One American code has never been broken. Perhaps it never will. It was used in the Pacific during World War Two. For many years the government would not discuss this secret code. Listen for a moment to this very unusual code. Then you may understand why the Japanese military forces were never able to understand any of it. The code is in the voice of a Native American. The man you just heard is singing a simple song in the Navajo language. Very few people outside the Navajo nation are able to speak any of their very difficult language. At the beginning of World War Two, the United States Marine Corps asked members of the Navajo tribe to train as Code Talkers. The Cryptologic Museum says the Marine Corps Code Talkers could take a sentence in English and change it into their language in about 20 seconds. A code machine needed about 30 minutes to do the same work. The Navajo Code Talkers took part in every battle the Marines entered in the Pacific during World War Two. The Japanese were very skilled at breaking codes. But they were never able to understand any of what they called "The Marine Code." Perhaps the most famous is a World War Two German code machine called the Enigma. The word "enigma" means a puzzle or a problem that is difficult to solve. The German military used the Enigma machine to communicate orders and plans. The United States, Britain, and the government of Poland cooperated in learning to read information sent by the Enigma. It took thousands of people and cost millions of dollars to read the Enigma information. This is a VOA product and is in the public domain
Views: 6477 ListenAndReadAlong
The science of secrecy
 
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Join Imperial's Institute for Security Science and Technology for an informative presentation on codes, ciphers and computers. Professor Richard Aldrich, Dr Martin Knight, Professor Sir Peter Knight and Dr Simon Singh take you on a tour of cryptography through the ages. From its beginnings in pen and paper to its future in quantum computing. Professor David Edgerton, Hans Rausing Chair in the Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at Imperial College London, will chair the panel: The beginnings of cryptography - Dr Simon Singh, science writer, journalist, TV producer, Imperial alumnus and author of 'The code book' Bletchley Park and the greatest secret in WWII - Dr Martin Knight, Chairman of Imperial Innovations and former Chief Operating Officer at Imperial College London Intelligence gathering in the Cold War - Professor Richard Aldrich, Professor of International Security at the University of Warwick and author of 'GCHQ: the uncensored story of Britain's most secret intelligence agency' Quantum cryptography - Professor Sir Peter Knight FRS, President elect of the Institute of Physics, Principal of the Kavli Royal Society International Centre and Senior Research Investigator at Imperial College London For more information please visit : http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/eventssummary/event_14-7-2011-14-15-33
How Sweden cracked the Nazi code - World War II documentary
 
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G for Secret Swedish documentary from 1994. English subtitles available. The story how Sweden cracked the messages sent by the cipher machine Siemens & Halske T52 / Geheimfernschreiber ("secret teleprinter") / "Sturgeon" used by Nazi Germany during World War II. The story of Arne Beurling, the professor of mathematics who solved the code, alone, with pen and paper. The cypher in the Geheimfernschreiber is generally considered to be more complex than the cypher used in the Enigma machines.
Views: 34030 Swedish History
A Short History of Cryptography - A Brief History of Cryptography
 
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A Short History of Cryptography - A Brief History of Cryptography
Views: 35036 fb
How Was Hitler's Enigma Machine Cracked?
 
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During WWII, an elite team of British codebreakers, including Alan Turing and Gordon Welchman, were tasked with cracking one of the most complex secret communication systems in existence: Hitler's Enigma. From: THE CODEBREAKER WHO HACKED HITLER http://bit.ly/1X1crM6
Views: 84779 Smithsonian Channel
Cryptography: A Love Story
 
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This video is part of a series of work by High Tech High Media Arts 12th grade students in the curated exhibition, "Illuminated Mathematics." Students were ask to produce a creative digital media piece about math in history, culture and the applied arts to heighten awareness of the beauty of math in our world.
Views: 965 NobleStudentFilms
Secret Codes - Cryptography, Decipherment and the Imitation Game
 
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Hidden messages, and how we uncover them. A quick look at cryptography, cryptanalysis and decipherment. The 2014 film, The Imitation Game, centers on Alan Turing and the cracking of the Enigma Machine. There’s a whole history of “figuring out” behind Turing’s discovery. Three secretive subjects come to mind. Cryptography finds ways of keeping your messages secret. Cryptanalysis reverse engineers those ways and finds out your secrets. Decipherment tries to read an unknown writing system. My next video will look at 9 scripts and codes that are still a mystery to this day: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=emX-DNtSXpI&index=2&list=UUMk_WSPy3EE16aK5HLzCJzw Are you interested in tales of decipherment, like the deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphs? Leave a comment! Not a subscriber? Subscribe for more videos about language! Music: Cycles (audionautix.com) Creative Commons 3.0 photos used here: Enigma machine, Turing statue and pics of undeciphered scripts
Views: 22056 NativLang
WTF is Encryption!?
 
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WTF is encryption? Here's a quick explainer on the history of encryption from Real Future's Kashmir Hill and Yahoo's Chief Information Security Officer, Bob Lord. Subscribe to Fusion: https://www.youtube.com/user/thisisfusion
Views: 1393 FUSION
FREEMASON CIPHER - Secrecy is a weapon
 
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Follow me here ► https://steemit.com/@digitaltrends47 The pigpen cipher alternately referred to as the masonic cipher. It is a geometric simple substitution which exchanges letters for symbols, which are fragments of a grid. In earlier times the Freemason used cipher to write correspondence , Send messages or keep records. It is seldom used today, but remains a part of our lesser known history , none the less. They wanted to communicate among themselves Without other people understanding what they wrote . Music by AndewG - https://soundcloud.com/andrew_g-2 To use this music in your videos or media projects, you must first purchase a license. KEYWORDS: freemason cipher pigpen cipher masonic cipher how freemason communicate mason masonic cipher book, masonic cipher translator, masonic cipher, masonic cipher book translation pigpen cipher pigpen cipher solver, pigpen cipher explained, pigpen cipher tutorial, pigpen cipher example, pigpen cipher how to solve, pigpen cipher, pigpen cipher worksheet pig pen cipher, pigpen cipher pig pen cipher, pigpen cipher the lost symbol the lost symbol The Lost Symbol Magic Squares and the Masonic Cipher
Views: 9568 Digital Trends 47
History of Cryptocurrency
 
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A short amateur documentary on the history of cryptocurrency, including Bitcoin.
Views: 829 Mark Grabowski
The History of Mathematics and Its Applications
 
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Join Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/majorprep/ Follow MajorPrep on Twitter: https://twitter.com/MajorPrep1 ►Courses Offered Through Coursera (Affiliate Links) Logic: https://click.linksynergy.com/deeplink?id=vFuLtrCrRW4&mid=40328&murl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.coursera.org%2Flearn%2Fmathematical-thinking Graph Theory: https://click.linksynergy.com/deeplink?id=vFuLtrCrRW4&mid=40328&murl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.coursera.org%2Flearn%2Fgraphs Discrete Math (includes a range of topics meant for computer scientists including graph theory, number theory, cryptography, etc): https://click.linksynergy.com/deeplink?id=vFuLtrCrRW4&mid=40328&murl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.coursera.org%2Fspecializations%2Fdiscrete-mathematics Intro to Complex Analysis: https://click.linksynergy.com/deeplink?id=vFuLtrCrRW4&mid=40328&murl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.coursera.org%2Flearn%2Fcomplex-analysis Game Theory: https://click.linksynergy.com/deeplink?id=vFuLtrCrRW4&mid=40328&murl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.coursera.org%2Flearn%2Fgame-theory-1 Cryptography: https://click.linksynergy.com/deeplink?id=vFuLtrCrRW4&mid=40328&murl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.coursera.org%2Flearn%2Fcrypto ►Books (Affiliate Links) Graph Theory: https://amzn.to/2IUXQ0A Logic/Proofs: https://amzn.to/2Cgh2oj Algorithms: https://amzn.to/2Cg0kWg Cryptography: https://amzn.to/2CKIATS Fermat's Last Theorem: https://amzn.to/2yzWNhY Chaos Theory: https://amzn.to/2Cgup83 ►Related Youtube Videos Turning a Sphere Inside Out: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6g3ZcmjJ7k Cutting a Mobius Strip (Visual): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XlQOipIVFPk Group Theory Lectures: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O4plQ5ppg9c&index=1&list=PLAvgI3H-gclb_Xy7eTIXkkKt3KlV6gk9_ Chaos Theory Lectures: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ycJEoqmQvwg&index=1&list=PLbN57C5Zdl6j_qJA-pARJnKsmROzPnO9V Geodesics Animation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wl8--BsbNnA ►Support the Channel Patreon: https://patreon.com/majorprep PayPal(one time donation): https://www.paypal.me/majorprep MajorPrep Merch Store: https://teespring.com/stores/majorprep ►Check out the MajorPrep Amazon Store: https://www.amazon.com/shop/majorprep *************************************************** ► For more information on math, science, and engineering majors, check us out at https://majorprep.com Best Ways to Contact Me: Facebook, twitter, or email ([email protected])
Views: 145108 MajorPrep
The Caesar cipher | Journey into cryptography | Computer Science | Khan Academy
 
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Brit explains the Caesar cipher, the first popular substitution cipher, and shows how it was broken with "frequency analysis" Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/crypt/v/polyalphabetic-cipher?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/crypt/v/intro-to-cryptography?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Computer Science on Khan Academy: Learn select topics from computer science - algorithms (how we solve common problems in computer science and measure the efficiency of our solutions), cryptography (how we protect secret information), and information theory (how we encode and compress information). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Computer Science channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC8uHgAVBOy5h1fDsjQghWCw?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 601112 Khan Academy
Best Documentary Ever The Most Thrilling Story about Monsters [Documentaries 2016]
 
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Thanks for watching Please Like, Share, Comment and Subscribe
Views: 519354 Jeanne R. Letendre
World’s Best Kept Secrets
 
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From Mysterious Online Societies; to the existence of above top secret projects and sites; these are 5 of the World’s Best Kept Secrets! HEY YOU ! There are more awesome videos being made every week, like and subscribe to World Unearthed so you don't miss a beat ! 5.Wikileaks THE SECRET - Who are the whistle blowers ? 4.Cicada 3301 THE SECRET - WHO RUNS THIS GROUP Hello. We are looking for highly intelligent individuals. To find them, we have devised a test. There is a message hidden in this image. Find it, and it will lead you on the road to finding us. We look forward to meeting the few that will make it all the through. Good luck. 3301 This cryptic image was first posted on January 4, 2012; and of course it was on found on a 4chan board. Many people assumed it was just someone running a prank; but there was a few people who were intrigued. Over the course of a month; a dedicated group of users solved multiple, increasingly harder puzzles. It was all fun and games until one of the last clues was found; Coordinates. This was no longer an online role playing game, at this point a lot of people got spooked, but some persevered through their fears. Considering there was an active chat channel; and multiple forums trying to crack the code at the same time; you might say that the solving of the puzzles was “crowdsourced”. The last clue to the Cicada 3301 Puzzle lead to a site on the deep web…. But only a select few saw it in its original state. The site had been replaced with a simple message “ We want the best, not the followers.” On January 5th, 2016, the fourth round of recruitment began… 3. Satoshi Nakamoto THE SECRET - Who is the man behind bitcoin ? Okay, many of you are familiar with bitcoin; it is the most popular crypto currency in existence; a digital currency that uses cryptography to control the creation of new coins and transactions of coins; a medium of exchange; a digital asset. So far; so good. Was bitcoin the original cryptocurrency; no. There was many before it; and it can all be traced back to Wei Dai; the creator of B-Money(1998); then there was Nick Szabo and his Bit Gold concept(1998); then a few others tried the concept out. Out of all, Bitcoin is by far the most successful one. The venture began in 2009 and it was created by the secret and mysterious identity only known as Satoshi Nakamoto. There are a few “educated guesses” as to who it might be, but nothing has been proven. It is also believed Nakamoto has a wallet with roughly 1 million bitcoins in it, in US dollars; we are talking 1.9 billion…. In reality, if Nakamoto ever decided to move or sell any of these bitcoins the whole market might collapse. Why? Because there would be widespread panic as to how much of the coins will be dispersed, creating an imbalance in the supply and demand chain. As of right now, one bitcoin trades for 1906 dollars. 2.The ULTRA Secret THE SECRET - The cracking of the Enigma Code 1.Black Projects We can sit here and speculate all we want, but there is no way in hell we will ever find out what the current black projects and sites that the .... is working on are. So instead, lets look at confirmed black projects of the past; Like the SR-71 Blackbird, the fastest plane ever recorded. How FAST? 2193.2 MPH( 3,529.6KM/H) fast. The general protocol for evading surface to air missiles was to just accelerate and outfly. The plane was developed by the Lockheed Corporation at their Skunk Works division.. This haunting picture shows all the pilots of SR-71 Blackbird in the 80’s. There is something about this image that is very surreal. Almost alien like. When I first saw it; I just had to know the history behind it. Considering the plane reached altitudes of 80,000ft (24,000M) they had to wear these special pressurized suits to stay alive. Some other notable declassified Black Projects are the B-2 Spirit Bomber; The F-117 Nighthawk; and the IX-529 | Seashadow. Which one do you think is the coolest ?
Views: 830637 World Unearthed
What is cryptography? | Journey into cryptography | Computer Science | Khan Academy
 
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What is Cryptography? A story which takes us from Caesar to Claude Shannon. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/crypt/v/caesar-cipher?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/algorithms/intro-to-algorithms/v/what-are-algorithms?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Computer Science on Khan Academy: Learn select topics from computer science - algorithms (how we solve common problems in computer science and measure the efficiency of our solutions), cryptography (how we protect secret information), and information theory (how we encode and compress information). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Computer Science channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC8uHgAVBOy5h1fDsjQghWCw?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 795136 Khan Academy
The Secret History of Silicon Valley
 
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Google Tech Talks December 18, 2007 How Stanford & the CIA/NSA Built the Valley We Know Today, presented by Steve Blank. How much does an average Googler know about the history of the place he/she works in - Silicon Valley? Come and test your knowledge. I have seen this talk and I assure you - even seasoned Silicon Valley veterans will find this story interesting. Silicon Valley entrepreneur Steve Blank will talk about how World War II set the stage for the creation and explosive growth of Silicon Valley, and the role of Frederick Terman and Stanford in working with government agencies (including the CIA and the National Security Agency) to set up companies in this area that sparked the creation of hundreds of other enterprises. Steve Blank spent nearly 30 years as founder and executive of high tech companies in Silicon Valley, most recently the enterprise software firm E.piphany. He has been involved in or co-founded eight Silicon Valley startups, ranging from semiconductors to video games, and personal computers to supercomputers. He teaches entrepreneurship at U.C. Berkeley's Haas School of Business, Columbia University and Stanford's Graduate School of Engineering. This talk was hosted by Boris Debic
Views: 246000 GoogleTechTalks
The Hidden History of America’s “Code Girls”
 
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While men may dominate computer science today, women played fascinating, overlooked roles in the field’s early days. During World War II, more than 10,000 American women were recruited to Washington, D.C., to take part in the United States’ massive codebreaking initiative. In her latest book, Code Girls: The Untold Story of the American Women Code Breakers of World War II, author Liza Mundy tells the secret history of these women, whose efforts saved countless lives and opened previously denied career opportunities to a new generation of women. Join Mundy and contemporary technologists to consider the hidden lives of these heroic Americans and what their stories tell us about women in computer science today. This event will be livestreamed on this page. Follow the conversation online with #CodeGirls and @FutureTenseNow. Speakers: Liza Mundy, @lizamundy Senior Fellow, New America Author of Code Girls: The Untold Story of the American Women Codebreakers of World War II, The Richer Sex, and Michelle: A Biography Erie Meyer, @Erie Senior Director of the National Network, Code for America Co-founder, U.S. Digital Service Courtney Eimerman-Wallace, @CourtPholio Director of Technology, Color of Change Moderator: Ian Wallace, @pianwallace Co-Director, Cybersecurity Initiative, New America ==================================== New America is dedicated to the renewal of American politics, prosperity, and purpose in the digital age through big ideas, technological innovation, next generation politics, and creative engagement with broad audiences. Subscribe to our channel for new videos on a wide range of policy issues: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=newamericafoundation Subscribe to The New America Weekly and other newsletters: http://www.newamerica.org/subscribe/#
Views: 1223 New America
Lesson 1: History of cryptography and its early stages in Europe (intypedia)
 
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Lesson 1: Alice and Bob are presenting the first subject of the encyclopedia: a walkthrough of the History of Cryptography and its early stages in Europe till World War I. Author: Arturo Ribagorda Garnacho, Carlos III University of Madrid. Script, slideshow and exercises: http://www.intypedia.com/?lang=en An intypedia team video
Views: 11310 UPM
The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography (1999)
 
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Simon Lehna Singh MBE (born 19 September 1964) is a British popular science author whose works largely contain a strong mathematical element. His written works include Fermat's Last Theorem (in the United States titled Fermat's Enigma: The Epic Quest to Solve the World's Greatest Mathematical Problem),[2][3] The Code Book[4] (about cryptography and its history), Big Bang[5] (about the Big Bang theory and the origins of the universe), Trick or Treatment? Alternative Medicine on Trial[6] (about complementary and alternative medicine, co-written by Edzard Ernst) and The Simpsons and Their Mathematical Secrets (about mathematical ideas and theorems hidden in episodes of The Simpsons and Futurama).[7] In 2012 Singh founded the Good Thinking Society.[8] Singh has also produced documentaries and works for television to accompany his books, is a trustee of NESTA, the National Museum of Science and Industry and co-founded the Undergraduate Ambassadors Scheme. Singh's parents emigrated from Punjab, India to Britain in 1950. He is the youngest of three brothers, his eldest brother being Tom Singh, the founder of the UK New Look chain of stores. Singh grew up in Wellington, Somerset, attending Wellington School, and went on to Imperial College London, where he studied physics. He was active in the student union, becoming President of the Royal College of Science Union.[9] Later he completed a PhD degree in particle physics at Emmanuel College, Cambridge and at CERN, Geneva. In 1983, he was part of the UA2 experiment in CERN.[11] In 1987, Singh taught science at The Doon School, the independent all-boys' boarding school in India.[12] In 1990 Singh returned to England and joined the BBC's Science and Features Department, where he was a producer and director working on programmes such as Tomorrow's World and Horizon. Singh was introduced to Richard Wiseman through their collaboration onTomorrow's World. At Wiseman's suggestion, Singh directed a segment about politicians lying in different mediums, and getting the public's opinion on if the person was lying or not. After attending some of Wiseman's lectures, Singh came up with the idea to create a show together, and Theatre of Science was born. It was a way to deliver science to normal people in an entertaining manner. Richard Wiseman has influenced Singh in such a way that Singh states: My writing initially was about pure science but a lot of my research now has been inspired by his desire to debunk things such as the paranormal – we both hate psychics, mediums, pseudoscience in general.[13] Singh directed his BAFTA award-winning documentary about the world's most notorious mathematical problem entitled "Fermat's Last Theorem" in 1996. The film was memorable for its opening shot of a middle-aged mathematician, Andrew Wiles, holding back tears as he recalled the moment when he finally realised how to resolve the fundamental error in his proof of Fermat's Last Theorem. The documentary was originally transmitted in October 1997 as an edition of the BBC Horizon series. It was also aired in America as part of the NOVA series. The Proof, as it was re-titled, was nominated for an Emmy Award. The story of this celebrated mathematical problem was also the subject of Singh's first book, Fermat's last theorem. In 1997, he began working on his second book, The Code Book, a history of codes and codebreaking. As well as explaining the science of codes and describing the impact of cryptography on history, the book also contends that cryptography is more important today than ever before. The Code Book has resulted in a return to television for him. He presented The Science of Secrecy, a five-part series for Channel 4. The stories in the series range from the cipher that sealed the fate of Mary, Queen of Scots, to the coded Zimmermann Telegram that changed the course of the First World War. Other programmes discuss how two great 19th century geniuses raced to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs and how modern encryption can guarantee privacy on the Internet. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_Singh Image: Sam Hughes [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
Views: 2662 Way Back
WWII Codebreaking and the First Computers, Malcolm A.H. MacCallum
 
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COPERNICUS FESTIVAL, May 6-11, 2014, Kraków http://www.copernicusfestival.com This is the story of why and how the first computers came into being. They were built to assist British codebreaking during World War II, specifically to make possible automated codebreaking of the German teleprinter codes which the British called "Tunny". The story of Tunny is much less well-known than that of the Enigma machines. The General report on "Tunny" was published only in 2000 and some parts of the Tunny story are still classified. It has less Polish connection than Enigma, where three Polish mathematicians played a crucial role by breaking a pre-war version of the Enigma machine: Marian Rejewski, Henryk Zygalski and Jerzy Jerzy Różycki. Like Enigma (where the UK built on the Polish work), the Tunny codes were broken by mathematicians at Bletchley Park, the wartime home of the UK's "Government Code and Cipher School". During the war Bletchley Park was called "Government Communications Headquarters" (GCHQ), so as to give only a vague idea of its purpose. After the war, that became the official name of the UK Government's signals intelligence agency. Because the messages were of high strategic value, the breaking of Tunny was very successful although it decrypted many fewer messages than from Enigma. (27631 Tunny messages were intercepted and 13508 were broken.) As examples, Bletchley decrypted messages direct from Hitler himself in 1944, allowed the British to forewarn the Russians of the German attack around Kursk in July 1943, gave the Allies the German dispositions before D-Day, and showed them the value of the rather slow Italian campaign in tying down German forces. Colossus - machine used for breaking Tunny code - deserves to be called the first computer, although it was not a general purpose computer, but a special purpose cryptographic device. So one has to choose qualifying adjectives a bit carefully. (Many histories say the American ENIAC was the first computer. This just reflects the British ability to keep a secret). Not all features of later machines were present in Colossus: for example it did not have electronically stored programs. But many were: for example, Tommy Flowers introduced the term Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) for the core processing parts and Jack Good's experience with it led him to develop the idea of microprogramming. There is also an interesting comparison of Colossus with the first generation IBM PC. Its first break of a message was on 5 February 1944. By the end of the war there were 10 Colossi. At the end of the war Churchill ordered the destruction of the Colossi. All but two Colossi were broken up and designs destroyed. The remaining two are alleged to have been kept in case the Russians started to use captured German Tunny machines: those Colossi were destroyed around 1960. Information about the machines' existence only emerged in the 1970s due to Brian Randell in particular. Photos were released in 1975, and Flowers was allowed to publish the hardware design of the first Colossus in 1983 (without the explanation of what it was used for). In 1996 the US published the information it had about the machines and, due to Donald Michie, the "General report on Tunny" was published in June 2000. The general report on the Testery's work is still classified. There is a working reconstructed Colossus at Bletchley Park, built by Tony Sale and a team of volunteers. *** Professor Malcolm AH MacCallum is a British cosmologist , astrophysicist and applied mathematician - an Emeritus Professor of Applied Mathematics at the Queen Mary University of London, Deputy President of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation, member of the London Mathematical Society, and a chairman of the advisory Board of Mathematics Department at University of York. His field of interests covers most aspects of classical non-Newtonian gravity theory as well as computer algebra applied to differential equations.
[Hindi] What is Cryptography ? | Kya hai cryptography ? | Explained in simple words
 
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Hello Dosto Aaj hum baat karenge cryptography ke bare me ki ye kya hota hai aur iska itemaal kaise aur kaha hota hai. iska sambandh kisi bhi data ya message ko safely pohchane se hota hai aur uski security badhayi jati hai taaki bich me koi an-adhikarik tarike se usko access na kar paye. aasha karta hoo apko ye video pasand ayegi agar aapko ye video achhi lage to isse like kare aur apne dosto ke sath share kare aur abhi tak aapne mera channel subscribe nahi kia hai to jarur is channel ko subscribe kare. Subscribe to my channel for more videos like this and to support my efforts. Thanks and Love #TechnicalSagar LIKE | COMMENT | SHARE | SUBSCRIBE ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- For all updates : SUBSCRIBE Us on Technical Sagar : www.youtube.com/technicalsagarindia LIKE us on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/technicalsagarindia Follow us on Twitter : http://www.twitter.com/iamasagar
Views: 102297 Technical Sagar
Hitler's Enigma Machine : How Was Cracked Greatest Mysteries of World War 2
 
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Sunday Special: This video dedicated to #Enigma Codes breaker Alan Turing & #cryptography Hello Friends, In this video I will explain that what is nazi's enigma cypher machine? how alan turing cracked enigma code? how enigma machine works? #Hitler #german This video is for educational purpose only.Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for "fair use" for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. ▀▄▀▄▀▄ [ Follow Me on ] ▄▀▄▀▄▀ twitter: https://twitter.com/techchipnet facebook: https://facebook.com/techchip website: https://techchip.net Youtube: https://youtube.com/techchipnet Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/techchipnet/
Views: 42286 TechChip
The Internet: Encryption & Public Keys
 
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Mia Epner, who works on security for a US national intelligence agency, explains how cryptography allows for the secure transfer of data online. This educational video explains 256 bit encryption, public and private keys, SSL & TLS and HTTPS. Learn more at http://code.org/ Help us translate into your language: http://code.org/translate/videos Stay in touch with us! • on Twitter https://twitter.com/codeorg • on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/Code.org • on Instagram https://instagram.com/codeorg • on Tumblr https://blog.code.org • on LinkedIn https://www.linkedin.com/company/code... • on Google+ https://google.com/+codeorg Help us caption & translate this video! https://amara.org/v/HGaS/
Views: 237397 Code.org
ShmooCon 2014: History of Bletchley Park and How They Invented Cryptography and the Computer Age
 
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In the darkest days of WWII, a small team assembled at Bletchley Park solved two problems and set a new course for computers and cryptography - fast computers, and secure communications can both be traced back to one of the ugliest estates in London suburbia, where Alan Turing, Max Newman, Tommy Flowers, and others hacked their way through the German High Command. The British released the General Report on Tunny in 2000, and since then have rebuilt a Colossus and Enigma Bombe and opened the Park as a museum. We discuss the cryptanalysis of the Enigma and Lorentz ciphers, historical exploits as well as modern exploits, and their direct connections to the modern crypto systems and highspeed computers on which the world as we know it is built. Born to hippies in the late 60's, Benjamin Gatti grew up in California and taught himself electronics and software, travelled the World in the 90's, married abroad, and settled in Charlotte, North Carolina where he works as an independent software slacker.
Views: 3046 HackersOnBoard
A History of Primes - Manindra Agrawal
 
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A History of Primes Manindra Agrawal, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, October 2002 The Clay Mathematics Institute (CMI) 2002 Annual Meeting took place on Wednesday, October 30, 2002, from 2:30 to 5:30 PM, at the American Academy of Arts & Sciences in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Annual Meeting brought together an international assembly of mathematicians to celebrate the universality of mathematical thought. This meeting provided a public forum for discussion among leading mathematicians and scientists, and it strengthened relations between mathematicians, the public, and the scientific research community. The meeting began with the presentation of the 2002 Clay Research Award to Oded Schramm (for his work on the Loewner equation) and to Manindra Agrawal (for his work on primality testing). CMI President Arthur Jaffe and Directors Landon Clay and Lavinia Clay gave the awards. This Research Award recognizes major recent breakthroughs in two mathematical directions, and represents the pinnacle of recognition of research achievement by CMI. Each prizewinner becomes a Clay Research Scholar, and receives a bronze model of the CMI logo, an elegant sculpture "Figureight Knot Complement vii/ CMI" by sculptor Helaman Ferguson. Former winners are: Andrew Wiles, Laurent Lafforgue, Alain Connes, Stanislav Smirnov and Edward Witten. Two talks followed the awards ceremony. Manindra Agrawal of the Indian Institute of Technology surprised all experts in August 2002 by solving an ancient problem (working with two undergraduate students). They showed that one could determine the primality of a number in polynomial time. This was the first talk in the United States by the inventor of the new method. Vladimir Voevodsky from the Institute of Advanced Study gave the second talk. He spoke about the mathematical breakthroughs that led to his receiving the Fields Medal in August 2002. "We have a very impressive set of ground-breaking mathematicians at this year's meeting as award winners and speakers. The meeting certainly will inspire young mathematicians who attend, as well as all those who read about it or view the meeting on the web," said Arthur Jaffe, President of the Clay Mathematics Institute. "Agrawal will discuss his exciting discovery - the ASK algorithm for primality testing, and Voevodsky will explain his novel approach to the mathematical modeling of shapes known as "motivic homotopy theory." http://www.claymath.org/annual_meeting/2002_Annual_Meeting/
Views: 13473 PoincareDuality
What is The History of Bitcoin: Super Easy Explanation
 
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What is The History of Bitcoin: Super Easy Explanation - https://blockgeeks.com/ We’ll start at the very beginning by understanding the history of blockchain. The very first blockchain in the world was Bitcoin. An anonymous person or group known as Satoshi Nakamoto published a document in an online cryptography forum in November 2008 and revealed the first details of how it would work, describing it as a “peer-to-peer electronic cash system”. The whitepaper is available today at bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf. It allows any 2 people to pseudonymously send money to each other no matter where they are in the world. It is a borderless currency. The main benefit of Bitcoin is that it does not require any centralized authority or institution to operate. This is in contrast to today’s centralized financial systems that depend on the existence of a central bank or government to mint money. If for any reason the central authority were to shutdown, the money would become worthless. In a decentralized system like Bitcoin, there is no central authority and the system can continue to operate as long as there are members in its peer-to-peer network. The goal of the whitepaper was to describe how the different parts of the Bitcoin protocol would operate and be kept secure. A new type of database, called a blockchain, would keep track of a single history of all Bitcoin transactions and it would be maintained by everyone in the network. The database would be publicly available for anyone to view and inspect, and anyone can download a copy of the same database. This provides data redundancy and makes sure the data is never lost, but also provides a way for anyone to verify the transactions in the database themselves. A block in the database just stores a sequence of transactions, and a sequence of blocks is called a blockchain. Each block is identified by an incrementing number and a unique Sha-256 hash. The hash for a block is calculated using the transactions inside it, as well as the previous block’s hash, which forms a chain of hashes. The data in the blocks is secured using a cryptographic algorithm called proof-of-work, which also keeps all members of the network and the database in sync to prevent double-spending. In this context, preventing double-spending means preventing anyone from spending money they dont have. Proof-of-work is used to generate new blocks for the database, also known as mining, and the reward for mining a new block is given to the miner by creating new Bitcoins in the system. This is the only way new Bitcoins can be created. Anyone on the network can be a miner and a new block is mined roughly every 10 minutes, which includes the latest set of verified transactions. The first release for Bitcoin was version 0.1 written in C++ by Satoshi and published on SourceForge in January 2009 under the open-source MIT license. Anyone could download the source code and run it to join the network, also known as becoming a node in the network. This is the original version 0.1 source code written by Satoshi. We can see the hard-coded genesis block, which is the very first block in the chain. The hash for the block can be verified by using any Bitcoin blockchain explorer. Let’s copy and paste this hash into the blockchain explorer available at blockchain.info. We can see that this hash is for block number 0, and that it has only one transaction in it which is the mining reward, and the reward amount of 50 Bitcoin was given to this Bitcoin address. We can also see this 50 Bitcoin reward for the genesis block in the original source code. The genesis block is a special case needed to start the blockchain and is the only block that is hard-coded, whereas every subsequent block is calculated using proof-of-work. Satoshi’s motivation for creating Bitcoin is revealed in the piece of data he included in the genesis block: a newspaper headline from The Times that read ‘Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks’. The date of the newspaper is proof that the genesis block was created on or after Jan 3 2009. Satoshi developed the source code mostly himself up until mid-2010, when he handed it off to the open-source community. It is now maintained under the project called Bitcoin Core. The software is currently at version 0.15.1 and is available for download at bitcoin.org. This is still the most popular Bitcoin client, and its estimated that there are over 10 thousand nodes running the Bitcoin network today using various clients. Satoshi disappeared from public view in late 2010, his identity still unknown to this day. The only way someone could prove that they are Satoshi is by using the same encryption keys used when posting the original whitepaper in the online cryptography forum. To read more check out https://blockgeeks.com/
Views: 13421 Blockgeeks
Telling a Scary Story: history of prose horror (with Critical Lit)
 
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Prose scares. Poetry haunts: http://youtu.be/lcq0S4TD0Vg Subscribe to Critical Lit: http://www.youtube.com/CriticalLit The history of a scary story formula... There's a Halloween horror checklist for the prose narrative of movies, novels and video games we love to fear. It's a focused use of language that took centuries to develop. - menace (+1 social ills) - intimidation - macguffin - plot twist (+1 unreliable narrator) Corrections: - "aswang": ə'swaŋ instead of my nativized pronunciation here (thanks, bokology!) Hallway images: Erik Karlsson Peter Wagner Music: Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Jason Shaw (audionautics.com) CC images: Hitchcock by Jack Mitchell
Views: 27598 NativLang
David Kahn on recent developments in cryptography and stealing code keys
 
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David Kahn, author of The Codebreakers - The Story of Secret Writing on: the lack of information on current codes; the tactical advantages from stealing code keys; Quantum cryptography; and the virtual unbreakability of one-time pad codes.
Views: 1898 SmartMonkeyTV
The Randomness Problem: How Lava Lamps Protect the Internet
 
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Go to https://Brilliant.org/SciShow to get 20% off of an annual Premium subscription! Randomness is important for all kinds of things, from science to security, but to generate true randomness, engineers have turned to some pretty odd tricks! Hosted by: Stefan Chin Head to https://scishowfinds.com/ for hand selected artifacts of the universe! ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters: Lazarus G, Sam Lutfi, D.A. Noe, الخليفي سلطان, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Patrick D. Ashmore, charles george, Kevin Bealer, Chris Peters ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: https://www.wired.com/story/cloudflare-lava-lamps-protect-from-hackers/ https://sploid.gizmodo.com/one-of-the-secrets-guarding-the-secure-internet-is-a-wa-1820188866 https://www.fastcompany.com/90137157/the-hardest-working-office-design-in-america-encrypts-your-data-with-lava-lamps https://www.nytimes.com/2001/06/12/science/connoisseurs-of-chaos-offer-a-valuable-product-randomness.html https://blog.cloudflare.com/why-randomness-matters/ https://www.design-reuse.com/articles/27050/true-randomness-in-cryptography.html https://www.random.org/randomness/ https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-856j-randomized-algorithms-fall-2002/lecture-notes/ https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-26300-7_3 https://www.maa.org/sites/default/files/pdf/upload_library/22/Ford/Volchan46-63.pdf https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-22r1a.pdf http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/~simardr/testu01/guideshorttestu01.pdf https://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1418/index2.html https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/papers/2008/P113.pdf https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/secauthn/tls-handshake-protocol https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2246#page-47 https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/trafficanalysistools/tat_vol3/vol3_guidelines.pdf https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/aeronautics-and-astronautics/16-36-communication-systems-engineering-spring-2009/lecture-notes/MIT16_36s09_lec21_22.pdf https://telescoper.wordpress.com/2009/04/04/points-and-poisson-davril/ https://auto.howstuffworks.com/remote-entry2.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20070315010555/https://cigital.com/papers/download/developer_gambling.php Images: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Middle-square_method.svg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdW6nTNWbkc https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sun-crypto-accelerator-1000.jpg
Views: 418396 SciShow
Sunken Gold - The  Story of WWI, Espionage, and the Greatest Treasure Salvage in History
 
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On January 25, 1917, HMS Laurentic, a British ship laden with forty-four tons of Allied gold was sunk by German mines off the coast of Ireland. Desperate to recover the treasure, the Admiralty sent its best divers to salvage the gold. Their experiences in the tight confines of the sunken wreck drew the attention of Rear Admiral Reginald "Blinker" Hall, the Head of British Naval Intelligence, who organized the group into the legendary "Tin-openers." These divers, operating in live minefields, plumbed into freshly sunk U-boats searching for codes, ciphers, and other intelligence to assist the codebreaking operations of the mysterious Room 40 and helping to win the war. Joseph A. Williams, author of The Sunken Gold: A Story of World War I, Espionage, and the Greatest Treasure Salvage in History will recount, through newly discovered sources, the epic deeds of these covert divers, bringing to light the grit and determination their project demanded. ------------------------------------------------------------------ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/IntlSpyMuseum Twitter: https://twitter.com/intlspymuseum SpyCast: https://audioboom.com/channel/spycast
Views: 2071 IntlSpyMuseum
Ever wonder how Bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies) actually work?
 
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Bitcoin explained from the viewpoint of inventing your own cryptocurrency. Home page: https://www.3blue1brown.com/ Brought to you by you: http://3b1b.co/btc-thanks And by Protocol Labs: https://protocol.ai/join/ Some people have asked if this channel accepts contributions in cryptocurrency form. Indeed! http://3b1b.co/crypto 2^256 video: https://youtu.be/S9JGmA5_unY Music by Vincent Rubinetti: https://soundcloud.com/vincerubinetti/heartbeat Here are a few other resources I'd recommend: Original Bitcoin paper: https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf Block explorer: https://blockexplorer.com/ Blog post by Michael Nielsen: https://goo.gl/BW1RV3 (This is particularly good for understanding the details of what transactions look like, which is something this video did not cover) Video by CuriousInventor: https://youtu.be/Lx9zgZCMqXE Video by Anders Brownworth: https://youtu.be/_160oMzblY8 Ethereum white paper: https://goo.gl/XXZddT ------------------ Animations largely made using manim, a scrappy open source python library. https://github.com/3b1b/manim If you want to check it out, I feel compelled to warn you that it's not the most well-documented tool, and has many other quirks you might expect in a library someone wrote with only their own use in mind. Music by Vincent Rubinetti. Download the music on Bandcamp: https://vincerubinetti.bandcamp.com/album/the-music-of-3blue1brown Stream the music on Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/album/1dVyjwS8FBqXhRunaG5W5u If you want to contribute translated subtitles or to help review those that have already been made by others and need approval, you can click the gear icon in the video and go to subtitles/cc, then "add subtitles/cc". I really appreciate those who do this, as it helps make the lessons accessible to more people. ------------------ 3blue1brown is a channel about animating math, in all senses of the word animate. And you know the drill with YouTube, if you want to stay posted on new videos, subscribe, and click the bell to receive notifications (if you're into that). If you are new to this channel and want to see more, a good place to start is this playlist: http://3b1b.co/recommended Various social media stuffs: Website: https://www.3blue1brown.com Twitter: https://twitter.com/3Blue1Brown Patreon: https://patreon.com/3blue1brown Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/3blue1brown Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/3Blue1Brown
Views: 2547685 3Blue1Brown
First National Reunion of WWII Code Girls
 
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The Library of Congress Veterans History Project (VHP) will host a reunion of a special group of changemakers—the women who served as top secret code breakers during World War II, more commonly known as “Code Girls.” This event is believed to be the first national reunion of these women, all of whom are nonagenarians. Guest speakers include “Code Girls” Nancy Tipton and Suzanne Embree, New York Times bestselling author Liza Mundy, and television personality Bill Nye, whose late mother was a “Code Girl.” The “Code Girls” were originally recruited as young college students with high aptitudes in mathematics and linguistics, and are credited with cracking the secret codes that helped lead the United States to victory. Due to the sensitive nature of their work, the women’s achievements and patriotic service was at risk of being lost to history until Mundy, citing VHP collections and other sources, published her widely popular book, Code Girls: The Untold Story of the American Women Code Breakers of World War II (Hachette Books, 2017).
Views: 2694 LibraryOfCongress
The Data Explosion | The History of the Internet, Part 3
 
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Nearly twenty years after the dot-com bubble burst, the internet is an essential piece of the modern world, with the public side mostly commanded by a few powerful companies. SciShow is nominated for a Webby! Vote for us! https://vote.webbyawards.com/PublicVoting#/2017/film-video/video-channels-and-networks/science-education-channels-and-networks Hosted by: Michael Aranda ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters—we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Kevin Bealer, Mark Terrio-Cameron, KatieMarie Magnone, Patrick Merrithew, Charles Southerland, Fatima Iqbal, Benny, Tim Curwick, Scott Satovsky Jr, Philippe von Bergen, Bella Nash, Bryce Daifuku, Chris Peters, Patrick D. Ashmore, Charles George, Bader AlGhamdi ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: http://www.nytimes.com/1996/09/29/nyregion/l-internet-is-a-supplement-not-a-substitute-533246.html https://www.wired.com/1997/02/fflucas/ https://partners.nytimes.com/library/cyber/sites/082597sites.html http://www.biography.com/people/groups/wild-west http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/era.cfm?eraID=9&smtID=2 http://www.digitaltrends.com/web/oldweb-today-web-archives/ http://money.cnn.com/2015/03/10/investing/nasdaq-5000-stocks-market/ http://archive.fortune.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2000/10/30/290609/index.htm https://worldhistoryproject.org/topics/dot-com-bubble https://www.wired.com/2010/03/0310nasdaq-bust/ https://qz.com/348954/the-nasdaq-is-back-to-its-dot-com-bubble-peak/ http://www.seattletimes.com/business/microsoft/long-antitrust-saga-ends-for-microsoft/ http://www.economist.com/news/business/21605917-napsters-founders-demonstrate-challenges-entrepreneurial-second-acts-hit-me-baby-one-more http://fortune.com/2013/09/05/ashes-to-ashes-peer-to-peer-an-oral-history-of-napster/ http://1stwebdesigner.com/history-of-social-networking/ http://www.whoishostingthis.com/blog/2014/11/20/another-bubble/ http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/technology/2009/10/how_geocities_invented_the_internet.html http://web.archive.org/web/19990209135604/geocities.com/neighborhoods/ https://techcrunch.com/2009/04/23/yahoo-quietly-pulls-the-plug-on-geocities/ http://www.cbsnews.com/pictures/then-and-now-a-history-of-social-networking-sites/4/ https://www.wired.com/2013/02/friendster-autopsy/ http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2384588,00.asp http://www.csgnetwork.com/bandwidth.html http://whatis.techtarget.com/reference/Fast-Guide-to-DSL-Digital-Subscriber-Line https://www.wired.com/2016/04/average-webpage-now-size-original-doom/ https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/27/technology/cloud-computing-brings-sprawling-centers-but-few-jobs-to-small-towns.html http://www.datacenterdynamics.com/content-tracks/power-cooling/kc-mares-the-internets-power-buyer/66315.fullarticle http://www.loudountimes.com/news/article/loudoun_countys_data_center_market_continues_to_surge432 http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/23/technology/data-centers-waste-vast-amounts-of-energy-belying-industry-image.html https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e7d5/3f538f5239739d1f943c81d17e4a167c65c6.pdf http://trouvus.com/how-does-the-youtube-recommendation-system-work/ http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/cover_story/2016/01/how_facebook_s_news_feed_algorithm_works.html http://www.pewinternet.org/2017/02/08/code-dependent-pros-and-cons-of-the-algorithm-age/ http://www.pnas.org/content/111/24/8788.full https://medium.com/message/engineering-the-public-289c91390225 http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/columnist/komando/2015/10/09/stop-facebook-targeted-ads-and-tracking/73588820/ http://money.cnn.com/2015/01/09/technology/security/super-cookies/ http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/01/14/privacy-and-information-sharing/ https://www.cnet.com/news/facebook-sued-for-15-billion-over-alleged-privacy-infractions/ https://www.technologyreview.com/s/509471/amazon-woos-advertisers-with-what-it-knows-about-consumers/ http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/05/20/americans-attitudes-about-privacy-security-and-surveillance/
Views: 173010 SciShow
Cryptography: The Science of Secrets with Brian Veicht
 
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Brian Veitch discusses the science of secrets and techniques used to encrypt and decrypt secret messages. This video production is brought to you by STEM Read, powered by [email protected] Topics discussed include cryptography, the difference between cryptographers and cryptanalysts, cipher disks, frequency analysis, encryption, decryption, the story of Mary, Queen of Scotts, and modern uses of cryptography. This video was created to support learning and activities related to The Maze Runner, a STEM Read book by James Dashner. Play our game and learn more about cryptography.: http://smartspaceniu.net/cryptography-cracking-the-code/
Views: 722 NIU STEAM
Safe and Sorry – Terrorism & Mass Surveillance
 
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Sources: Terrorist surveillance program: Original press release: http://1.usa.gov/1p0lZXT Assessment of potential effect of surveillance measures if implemented before 9/11: Interview with FBI director Robert Mueller: http://bit.ly/1MvHNpB FBI investigations of immigrants: "NSEERS effect" report: http://bit.ly/1qU8Wcu Quote on aggressive racial profiling: Article "Are we safer?" by David Cole, Professor of Law at Georgetown University Law Center: http://bit.ly/1Sc8tLo Extent of NSA surveillance: NSA power point slides on collecting buddy lists, obtained by Washington Post: http://wapo.st/1cWi0SM NSA slides on prism data collection, obtained by The Guardian: http://bit.ly/1qmj46r NSA results from mass surveillance vs. target surveillance: Report from the Presidents NSA Review group 2013 (recommending to stop mass data mining because of lack of results): http://1.usa.gov/1bK0q7x Article from ProPublica: http://bit.ly/1PAusfR Analysis from the New America Foundation: http://bit.ly/1SSq8ea Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier Surveillance program didn`t stop any major attacks: Full video of court hearing with NSA director Keith B. Alexander on surveillance: http://cs.pn/1Yv1G0N Official report on results of phone surveillance policy: http://1.usa.gov/1bK0q7x Article on debunked claims: http://bit.ly/1p0n2ae Official judge ruling on matter points to no evidence: https://www.propublica.org/documents/item/902454-judge-leon-ruling#document/p62 Report by the legal affairs and human rights committee of the parliamentary assembly of the Council of Europe: http://bit.ly/1qr9aXC Boston marathon bomber was known to FBI: Official press release: http://1.usa.gov/1Vrw4vI FBI asked Apple for help: Official court order: http://bit.ly/24auFf6 Apple`s refusal to crack iPhone: Official public statement: http://apple.co/1Lt7ReW Objections against FBI demands from cryptographers: Brad Smith keynote at the RSA information security conference: http://bit.ly/1Vrwd1Y (especially relevant from minute 7 on) Statement by Information Technology Industry Council: http://bit.ly/1Q9cg7N Amicus briefs supporting Apple: http://apple.co/1OSBypU FBI changing their story about needing Apple`s help: Initial article on Washington Post: http://wapo.st/1KqHIT7 Initial story on Reutersblog: http://reut.rs/1SCl73o Update on Reuters: http://reut.rs/1NdTJae Article on ACLU about possible work-around: http://bit.ly/1OZ2nZL Blogpost on another possible workaround: http://bit.ly/1Vrwv98 NSA can turn on iPhone remotely: BBC interview with Edward Snowden: http://bit.ly/1Nab09Q Article on Wired: http://bit.ly/1hvZMNn Abuse of anti-terrorism laws: Proof of Patriot Act laws used for investigating other crimes, especially drugs: http://bit.ly/1LXBu9X „Sneak and Peak“ report: http://bit.ly/1RVGhgM Enforcement of French anti-terrorism laws: Detailed explanation of new powers given by extended laws: http://bit.ly/1OYBpSl Original law text (in french): http://bit.ly/1qraiKQ Abuse of french anti-terrorism laws: Human rights watch reports cases: http://bit.ly/1SZmwpH Climate change protesters placed under house arrest: http://reut.rs/20DYZfa Censorship in Hungary, Poland and Spain: http://bit.ly/20DZ3eS http://bit.ly/1Qgc7lX http://bit.ly/1WtmIyv http://bit.ly/1MvJ8N7 Jail time for government critics in Turkey: http://bit.ly/1oXBctf Effects of surveillance on our society: List of issues of power abuse since 9/11 by American Civil liberties union: http://bit.ly/1U6Rux4 General overview over the topic: http://bit.ly/1Pyj8uR http://bit.ly/1RVH2GF http://bit.ly/MZe4qY Safe and Sorry– Terrorism & Mass Surveillance Help us caption & translate this video! http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCsXVk37bltHxD1rDPwtNM8Q&tab=2
174-Cracking the Nazi Code
 
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In 1940, Germany was sending vital telegrams through neutral Sweden using a sophisticated cipher, and it fell to mathematician Arne Beurling to make sense of the secret messages. In this week's episode of the Futility Closet podcast we'll describe the outcome, which has been called "one of the greatest accomplishments in the history of cryptography." We'll also learn about mudlarking and puzzle over a chicken-killing Dane. Intro: In 1836, three boys discovered 17 tiny coffins entombed near Edinburgh. On his 1965 album A Love Supreme, John Coltrane "plays" a poem on the saxophone. Sources for our feature on Arne Beurling: Bengt Beckman, Codebreakers: Arne Beurling and the Swedish Crypto Program During World War II, 1996. David Kahn, The Codebreakers: The Story of Secret Writing, 1967. David Joyner, ed., Coding Theory and Cryptography, 2000. Bengt Beckman and Jonathan Beard, "Codebreakers: Arne Beurling and the Swedish Crypto Program During World War II," Intelligence and National Security 18:4 (January 2004), 206-207. Lars Ulfving, "The Geheimschreiber Secret: Arne Beurling and the Success of Swedish Signals Intelligence," in Bo Hugemark and Probus Förlag, eds., I Orkanens Öga, 1941 -- Osäker neutralitet, 1992. Louis Kruh, "Arne Beurling and Swedish Crypto," Cryptologia 27:3 (July 2003), 231. John Wermer, "Recollections of Arne Beurling," Mathematical Intelligencer 15:3 (January 1993), 32–33. Jurgen Rohwer, "Signal Intelligence and World War II: The Unfolding Story," Journal of Military History 63:4 (October 1999), 939-951. Bo Kjellberg, "Memories of Arne Beurling, February 3, 1905–November 20, 1986," Mathematical Intelligencer 15:3 (January 1993), 28–31. Håkan Hedenmalm, "Codebreakers: Arne Beurling and the Swedish Crypto Program During World War II," Mathematical Intelligencer 28:1 (December 2006), 57–59. Craig Graham McKay, "Swedish Cryptanalysis and the Saga of Arne Beurling: A Book Review," Cryptologia 23:3 (July 1999), 257. Louis Kruh, "Swedish Signal Intelligence History," Cryptologia 27:2 (April 2003), 186-187. "How Sweden Cracked the Nazi Code," Swedish History, Jan. 22, 2017. Lars Ahlfors and Lennart Carleson, "Arne Beurling In Memoriam," Acta Mathematica 161 (1988), 1-9. John Borland, "Looking Back at Sweden's Super-Code-Cracker," Wired, Aug. 11, 2007. "Arne Carl-August Beurling," MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive (accessed Oct. 8, 2017). "Arne Beurling," Mathematics Genealogy Project (accessed Oct. 8, 2017). "Joins Advanced Study School," New York Times, Oct. 10, 1954. "Arne Beurling," Physics Today, February 2015. Listener mail: "Two Types: The Faces of Britain," BBC Four, Aug. 1, 2017. "Who Are the Mudlarks?", Thames Museum (accessed 10/21/2017). Lara Maiklem, "London's History in Mud: The Woman Collecting What the Thames Washes Up," Guardian, Sept. 14, 2016. Military High Command Department for War Maps and Communications, German Invasion Plans for the British Isles, 1940. This week's lateral thinking puzzle was contributed by listener Carsten Hamann, who sent these corroborating links (warning -- these spoil the puzzle). You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on iTunes or Google Play Music or via the RSS feed at http://feedpress.me/futilitycloset. Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet -- on our Patreon page you can pledge any amount per episode, and we've set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website. Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode. If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at [email protected] Thanks for listening!
Views: 400 Futility Closet
Top 10 Unbreakable Ciphers and Codes — TopTenzNet
 
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Top 10 Unbreakable Ciphers and Codes →Subscribe for new videos every day! http://bit.ly/toptenzsubscribe →10 Reasons Bruce Lee was a Superhuman: http://bit.ly/1Hl4mVu Entertaining and educational top 10 lists from TopTenzNet! Brand new videos 7 days a week! Videos are published at 6pm EST every day! Other TopTenz Videos: Top 10 Historical Unsolved Mysteries http://bit.ly/1RAAE95 In an age where we have satellites that can zoom in to watch an ant pee on a leaf, you’d think our society pretty much knows everything. Even with our high-speed, touchscreen, 3-D, Star Wars projectors, there are still a few ciphers and codes keeping cryptologists (trust us, it’s a word) stumped. Some of them come from way back in the 18th century. Even with the addition of advanced technology, ye ol’ pilgrims are proving that the smartest thing about our society might just be our phones. Text version: http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-unbreakable-ciphers-codes.php Coming up: 10. Dorabella Cipher 9. D’Agapeyeff Cipher 8. Indus Script 7. Chinese Gold Bar Ciphers 6. Zodiac Killer 5. Linear A 4. Proto-Elamite 3. Taman Shud 2. McCormick Cipher 1. Bacon Cipher Source/Other reading: http://www.ciphermysteries.com/the-dorabella-cipher http://nautil.us/issue/6/secret-codes/the-artist-of-the-unbreakable-code http://www.ciphermysteries.com/2013/12/23/dagapeyeff-cipher http://itknowledgeexchange.techtarget.com/security-corner/the-unsolved-dagapeyeff-cipher/ http://www.harappa.com/script/indusscript.pdf http://elonka.com/UnsolvedCodes.html http://books.google.com/books?id=G4gCs-RmVZwC&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=General+Wang+unsolved+gold+bars&source=bl&ots=vrfYkpCHEz&sig=gwWoVvcHk5qecMsXwuLVmZoYKZU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=XU9_U-HGOtelyATduYDYDg&ved=0CHsQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=General%20Wang%20unsolved%20gold%20bars&f=false http://listverse.com/2007/10/01/top-10-uncracked-codes/ http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/zodiac/8.html http://www.zodiologists.com/ http://mysteries24.com/n4-21061-Unsolved_coded_messages http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/cracking-the-code-the-decipherment-of-linear-b-60-years-on http://www.ancientscripts.com/elamite.html http://www.historytoday.com/mark-ronan/puzzle-proto-elamite http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/law-order/portrait-may-hold-key-to-somerton-man-beach-mystery/story-fni0ffnk-1226674957043 http://www.ciphermysteries.com/2009/08/08/the-tamam-shud-cipher-mystery http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2011/march/cryptanalysis_032911/cryptanalysis_032911 http://www.riverfronttimes.com/2012-06-14/news/ricky-mccormick-code-mysterious-death-st-louis/ http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/751135?uid=3739256&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21103794245461 http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/ciencia/esp_ciencia_manuscrito06.htm
Views: 86982 TopTenz
The Untold Story of Rod Rosenstein
 
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Outgoing Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein has evoked strong opinions across the political spectrum during his two-year tenure. Interestingly, over the past month, there has been an inversion of people’s opinions regarding him. Those on the left, who had been supporting him ever since he appointed special counsel Robert Mueller, are now claiming Rosenstein has been running interference for President Donald Trump. Those on the right, who felt Rosenstein betrayed the president with the appointment of Mueller, have begun to reassess his actions, following the publication of the Mueller report. ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••­­­••••••••••• Other Epoch Shows: American Thought Leaders: https://bit.ly/2V4KFTt Epoch News: https://bit.ly/2LxDQpK ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••­­­••••••••••• Hosted by Gina Shakespeare Written by Jeff Carlson @themarketswork Produced by @EpochTimes ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••­­­••••••••••• Social Media Follow Declassified on Twitter ‣ https://bit.ly/2EaWuP9 Follow Declassified on Facebook ‣ https://bit.ly/2EmibfW Follow Gina on Twitter ‣ https://bit.ly/2rrmpdA Follow Gina on Facebook ‣ https://bit.ly/2L9Ro7m Follow Gina on Instagram ‣ https://bit.ly/2QGgYpz
[BLU] Crypto History
 
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(2011-09-21) BLU monthly meeting A talk about the history of cryptography, given prior to our annual PGP/GnuPG keysigning party. User group meeting of Boston Linux & Unix on Wednesday, September 21, 2011. BLU calendar entry : http://blu.org/cgi-bin/calendar/2011-sep
Views: 206 bostonlinuxandunix