XX and XY are the chromosome pairs that determine your sex but what happens when you’re born with XXX or XYY? How often does this happen? Check out Wise Crack for more cool videos like this one: Is Gender Real? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkilQ87UUj8 Read More: Human Sex Chromosomes Are Sloppy DNA Swappers http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/human-sex-chromosomes-are-sloppy-dna-swappers-180955946/?no-ist “The genetic bundles that code for males and females can get a little messy when they trade pieces during cell division” Evolution of the Y Chromosome http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution-y-chromosome “The human X and Y chromosomes are a unique pair. The other chromosome pairs, called the autosomes, appear to be identical twins; they are superficially indistinguishable. In contrast, the X and Y chromosomes appear to be vastly different from one another.” ____________________ DNews is dedicated to satisfying your curiosity and to bringing you mind-bending stories & perspectives you won't find anywhere else! New videos twice daily. Watch More DNews on TestTube http://testtube.com/dnews Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel DNews on Twitter http://twitter.com/dnews Trace Dominguez on Twitter https://twitter.com/tracedominguez Julia Wilde on Twitter https://twitter.com/julia_sci DNews on Facebook https://facebook.com/DiscoveryNews DNews on Google+ http://gplus.to/dnews Discovery News http://discoverynews.com Download the TestTube App: http://testu.be/1ndmmMq
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Views: 613 TOP ARABIC BEST EXPLAINED LEVEL 10
From something as small and complex as a chromosome to something as seemingly simple as the weather, sex determination systems vary significantly across the animal kingdom. Biologist and teacher Aaron Reedy shows us the amazing differences between species when it comes to determination of gender. Lesson by Aaron Reedy, animation by BuzzCo (http://buzzzco.com).
Views: 2894579 TED-Ed
Y chromosome sex-determining region Y chromosome sex-determining region: The region on the Y chromosome that decides the sex of the individual. Abbreviated SRY. SRY is necessary for male determination. It encodes the testis-determining factor. Mutations in SRY are responsible for XY females with gonadal dysgenesis who appear to be normal females at birth but at puberty do not develop secondary sexual characteristics (such as breasts), do not menstruate, and have scarred (fibrous) gonads without eggs. How to pronounce Y chromosome sex-determining region definition of Y chromosome sex-determining region audio dictionary How to say Y chromosome sex-determining region What is the meaning of Y chromosome sex-determining region Pronounce Y chromosome sex-determining region Medical dictionary Medical definition of Y chromosome sex-determining region
Views: 27 Medical Dictionary
http://armandoh.org/ https://www.facebook.com/ArmandoHasudungan Support me: http://www.patreon.com/armando Instagram: http://instagram.com/armandohasudungan Twitter: https://twitter.com/Armando71021105 SPECIAL THANKS: Patreon members Artline Australia: http://www.artline.com.au/
Views: 190774 Armando Hasudungan
Sexual differentiation, Sex-determining region (SRY)gene,testis determining factor (TDF),MIF in Gujarati
Views: 67 Manish Koshti
Y sex-determining region Y sex-determining region: A region on the Y chromosome that determines the sex of the individual. This region goes by the symbol SRY (sex region Y). SRY is necessary and sufficient for male sex determination. It is the testis-determining factor. Mutations in SRY give rise to XY females with gonadal dysgenesis who appear to be normal females at birth, but at puberty do not develop secondary sexual characteristics (breasts, etc.), do not menstruate, and have streak (fibrous) gonads without eggs. There is a high incidence of neoplasia (gonadoblastoma and germinoma) in the streak gonads. Translocation (transfer) of the part of the Y chromosome containing SRY to the X chromosome results in XX males -- individuals who have XX sex chromosomes but appear male. SRY resides in chromosome band Yp11.3 and encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the high mobility group (HMG)-box family of DNA binding proteins. How to pronounce Y sex-determining region definition of Y sex-determining region audio dictionary How to say Y sex-determining region What is the meaning of Y sex-determining region Pronounce Y sex-determining region Medical dictionary Medical definition of Y sex-determining region
Views: 22 Medical Dictionary
TOP LIST HERE: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLwTXvKHGHam46KJ_waPqG5PPapwi4iz3K Simple Way for people who understand spanish, to know what medical English medicine terms mean in spanish. Have fun:) Complete Words, Full Vocabulary, a simple dictionary, English to Spanish. Learn spain Language, even the most difficult english words are found in these videos, learn and understand the spanish language totally free. Enjoy Level 10 :) All Videos are: Fun Free Forever These videos take from me so much time so i can make them for you guys, Please if you like my work, support me just by clicking Subscribe, Like, Share. So you can get more...
Views: 45 TOP SPANISH BEST EXPLAINED LEVEL 10
Visit our website for text version of this Definition and app download. http://medicalschooldictionary.com/ Subjects: medical terminology, medical dictionary, medical dictionary free download, medical terminology made easy, medical terminology song medical dictionary free download how to download medical dictionary stedman's medical dictionary best medical dictionary taber's medical dictionary oxford medical dictionary stedman's electronic medical dictionary medical dictionary free download medical dictionary online medical dictionary free download medical dictionary online medical school interview medical school parody medical school documentary medical school life medical school acceptance medical school motivation medical school interview questions and answers medical school pathology medical school graduation medical school admissions medical school interview medical school parody medical school documentary medical school life medical school acceptance medical school motivation medical school interview questions and answers medical school pathology medical school graduation medical school admissions medical school acceptance medical school anatomy medical school advice medical school application medical school acceptance reaction medical school acceptance letter medical school anatomy lecture medical school admissions committee medical school application process medical school anatomy lab medical school biochemistry medical school biochemistry lecture medical school blog medical school books medical school class medical school cadaver dissection medical school commencement medical school curriculum medical school courses medical school class lecture medical school cost medical school cardiology medical school comedy medical school cadaver medical school documentary medical school debt medical school die in medical school dissection medical school disney parody medical school day in the life medical school dropout medical school dating medical school dic medical school dorm medical school experience medical school electron transport chain medical school exam medical school embryology medical school essentials medical school europe my medical school experience medical school funny medical school first year medical school for international health medical school frozen parody medical school for everyone medical school first day medical school finals ucsf mini medical school for the public is medical school for me getting into medical school for dummies paperback medical school graduation medical school gunner medical school glycolysis made easy medical school gpa medical school graduation ceremony medical school gross anatomy medical school gluconeogenesis medical school group interview medical school glycolysis medical school genetics gw medical school medical school histology medical school harvard medical school how to study medical school humor medical school hard yale medical school hunger games harvard medical school harlem shake medical school interview medical school interview questions and answers medical school interview tell me about yourself medical school inspiration medical school interview attire medical school immunology medical school interview mock medical school interview why do you want to be a doctor medical school in the caribbean medical school in cuba i medical school glycolysis medical school journey medical school john hopkins medical school krebs cycle medical school lecture medical school lecture anatomy medical school let it go medical school lecture harvard medical school lecture biochemistry medical school low gpa medical school look at me now medical school lab what is medical school like john hopkins medical school lectures medical school motivation medical school mock interview medical school mmi medical school musical medical school music video medical school match day 2014 medical school microbiology medical school movie medical school made easy medical school mmi interview u of m medical school medical school notes medical school nurse medical school new zealand medical school oxidative phosphorylation medical school overview medical school of pathology medical school oxford cooper medical school of rowan university manchester medical school osce medical school parody medical school pathology medical school personal statement medical school pathology lectures medical school physiology medical school panel medical school pharmacology medical school physical exam medical school parody let it go medical school prank medical school questions medical school residency medical school rap medical school rotations medical school requirements medical school reaction medical school ragging medical school reality medical school routine medical school revision getting into medical school reaction medical school song medical school study tips medical school studying medical school scholarships
Views: 486 Medical Dictionary Online
1.Mechanism of sex determination in humans,birds and honey bees Two types of sex determination is found in Humans one is primary and second is secondary sex determination 1.In Primary sex determination in Humans: In Humans sex is determined on the basis of chromosome present in given individual Male(44+XY) is heterogametic: A given person will be men if he bear XY chromosome .For the development of male characters Y chromosome is essential. Y chromosome contains SRY gene full form is Sex determining Region on Y chromosome . SRY Gene promotes the formation of wolffian duct during embryonic development which will further differentiate into testes ,vas deferens and,seminal his gene is only present on Y chromosome that's why we call that Y chromosome is essential for development of male characters. I hope you are clear with concept in snapshot SRY gene promotes development of male characters Female(44+XX) homogametic: In Humans if a person is having XX chromosome then that individual will be female.Dax1 gene is present on the X chromosome which promotes the development of female gonads. As female is carrying a two copy of X chromosome means she has two copies Dax1 gene . Logically if we think then the product of Dax1 gene should be double but this does not happens in real because any one Chromosome becomes inactive by forming Barr body. Inactivation process of second X chromosome is called as Lyonization. In snapshot Dax1 gene promotes development of female gonads Special cases of sex determination in Humans: XX Male Syndrome: In this condition the given individual is phenotypically male with female genotype this happens due translocation of SRY gene from Y chromosome to X chromosome XY Female: In this condition the given individual is phenotypically female with male genotype this happens due translocation of Dax1 gene from X chromosome to Y chromosome. Klinefelter's syndrome(44+XXY) : Genotypically male with underdeveloped male characters due to low secretion of testosterone . Affected individual behaves like female and have enlarged breast with less body hair .Usually taller than normal male Turner's syndrome (44+X): In this condition affected individual is female with short stature and webbed neck Secondary sex determination in Humans Male: Male testes secrete testosterone which promotes development of body like much,beard,heaviness of voice,muscularization of body and some other male characters these are called as secondary sexual characters Female: In female estrogen and progesterone is secreted majorly by a pair of ovary which promotes breast development,pubic hair,fat accumulation at hip region
Views: 474 raju Sharma
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Views: 1090 Gillianne Dayco
X linked chromosomes explained,Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. One pair determine the gender of the child.A female will have xx chromosomes and males will have an x and a y chromosome The x and y chromosomes not only carry the genes that determine male and female traits but also some other characteristics as well. Since only men inherit Y chromosomes, they are the only ones to inherit Y-linked traits. The y chromosome carries around 200 genes. There are about 1,100 human X-linked genes. Most of them code for something other than female anatomical traits. Some X-linked genes are responsible for abnormal conditions such as hemophilia, red-green color blindness, and "male pattern baldness".
Views: 1033 MooMoo Math and Science
Mitochondrial DNA inheritance pattern - lecture explains about cytoplasmic inheritance or maternal inheritance pattern. http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/ Download the study materials here- http://shomusbiology.weebly.com/bio-materials.html In most multicellular organisms, mtDNA is inherited from the mother (maternally inherited). Mechanisms for this include simple dilution (an egg contains 100,000 to 1,000,000 mtDNA molecules, whereas a sperm contains only 100 to 1000), degradation of sperm mtDNA in the fertilized egg, and, at least in a few organisms, failure of sperm mtDNA to enter the egg. Whatever the mechanism, this single parent (uniparental) pattern of mtDNA inheritance is found in most animals, most plants and in fungi as well. Female inheritance In sexual reproduction, mitochondria are normally inherited exclusively from the mother. The mitochondria in mammalian sperm are usually destroyed by the egg cell after fertilization. Also, most mitochondria are present at the base of the sperm's tail, which is used for propelling the sperm cells. Sometimes the tail is lost during fertilization. In 1999 it was reported that paternal sperm mitochondria (containing mtDNA) are marked with ubiquitin to select them for later destruction inside the embryo. Some in vitro fertilization techniques, particularly injecting a sperm into an oocyte, may interfere with this. The fact that mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited enables researchers to trace maternal lineage far back in time. (Y-chromosomal DNA, paternally inherited, is used in an analogous way to trace the agnate lineage.) This is accomplished on human mitochondrial DNA by sequencing one or more of the hypervariable control regions (HVR1 or HVR2) of the mitochondrial DNA, as with a genealogical DNA test. HVR1 consists of about 440 base pairs. These 440 base pairs are then compared to the control regions of other individuals (either specific people or subjects in a database) to determine maternal lineage. Most often, the comparison is made to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence. Vilà et al. have published studies tracing the matrilineal descent of domestic dogs to wolves. The concept of the Mitochondrial Eve is based on the same type of analysis, attempting to discover the origin of humanity by tracking the lineage back in time. Because mtDNA is not highly conserved and has a rapid mutation rate, it is useful for studying the evolutionary relationships - phylogeny - of organisms. Biologists can determine and then compare mtDNA sequences among different species and use the comparisons to build an evolutionary tree for the species examined. Because mtDNA is transmitted from mother to child (both male and female), it can be a useful tool in genealogical research into a person's maternal line. Male inheritance Main article: Paternal mtDNA transmission It has been reported that mitochondria can occasionally be inherited from the father in some species such as mussels. Paternally inherited mitochondria have additionally been reported in some insects such as fruit flies, honeybees, and periodical cicadas. Evidence supports rare instances of male mitochondrial inheritance in some mammals as well. Specifically, documented occurrences exist for mice, where the male-inherited mitochondria was subsequently rejected. It has also been found in sheep, and in cloned cattle. It has been found in a single case in a human male. While many of these cases involve cloned embryos or subsequent rejection of the paternal mitochondria, others document in vivo inheritance and persistence under lab conditions. Source of the article published in description is Wikipedia. I am sharing their material. © by original content developers of Wikipedia. Link- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
Views: 43770 Shomu's Biology
Hello Everyone, I am Souvik Chatterjee. Welcome to my YouTube Channel Souvik Biology Tutorial. About This Video - In this video, I am trying to explain the Y Chromosome Structure of Human and Various regions of Human Y Chromosome. Share this video with your friends and Subscribe my channel.. About This Channel - Here I will discuss about Biology for All kind of Competitive Examination especially for NEET, and West Bengal school service examination biological science, SLST BIOLOGY. If you like my video please hit the like button, share it and subscribe my channel for upcoming videos. #ychromosome #souvikbiologytutorial #SLSTBIOLOGY Thank you very much.
Views: 545 Souvik Biology Tutorial
Views: 734 Sabaq. Pk
Explore gene expression with the Amoeba Sisters, including the fascinating Lac Operon found in bacteria! Learn how genes can be turned "on" and "off" and why this is essential for cellular function. Check out our FREE video handouts on http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts! Support us on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/amoebasisters Our FREE resources: GIFs: http://www.amoebasisters.com/gifs.html Handouts: http://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts.html Comics: http://www.amoebasisters.com/parameciumparlorcomics Connect with us! Website: http://www.AmoebaSisters.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/AmoebaSisters Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AmoebaSisters Tumblr: http://www.amoebasisters.tumblr.com Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/AmoebaSisters Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/amoebasistersofficial/ Visit our Redbubble store at http://www.amoebasisters.com/store.html The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky's certification and experience in teaching science at the high school level. Pinky's teacher certification is in grades 4-8 science and 8-12 composite science (encompassing biology, chemistry, and physics). Amoeba Sisters videos only cover concepts that Pinky is certified to teach, and they focus on her specialty: secondary life science. For more information about The Amoeba Sisters, visit: http://www.amoebasisters.com/about-us.html We cover the basics in biology concepts at the secondary level. If you are looking to discover more about biology and go into depth beyond these basics, our recommended reference is the FREE, peer reviewed, open source OpenStax biology textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology We take pride in our AWESOME community, and we welcome feedback and discussion. However, please remember that this is an education channel. See YouTube's community guidelines https://www.youtube.com/yt/policyandsafety/communityguidelines.html and YouTube's policy center https://support.google.com/youtube/topic/2676378?hl=en&ref_topic=6151248. We also reserve the right to remove comments with vulgar language. Music is this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library https://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary/music?feature=blog We have YouTube's community contributed subtitles feature on to allow translations for different languages. YouTube automatically credits the different language contributors below (unless the contributor had opted out of being credited). We are thankful for those that contribute different languages. If you have a concern about community contributed contributions, please contact us.
Views: 619409 Amoeba Sisters
Sexual differentiation, Sex-determining region (SRY)gene, testis-determining factor (TDF), Mullerian-inhibiting factor (MIF) Hindi
Views: 59 Manish Koshti
“Human Physiology” is a free online course on Janux that is open to anyone. Learn more at http://janux.ou.edu. Created by the University of Oklahoma, Janux is an interactive learning community that gives learners direct connections to courses, education resources, faculty, and each other. Janux courses are freely available or may be taken for college credit by enrolled OU students. Dr. Heather R. Ketchum is an Associate Professor of Biology. Video produced by NextThought (http://nextthought.com). Copyright © 2000-2014 The Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, All Rights Reserved.
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The evolution of the Y chromosome Daniel Bellott and Henrik Kaessmann on the evolution of the Y chromosome. - Reprieve for men: Y chromosome is not vanishing The sex chromosome has been shrinking throughout mammalian evolution, but many of its remaining genes play crucial roles beyond sex determination. Nature 24 April 2014 doi:10.1038/nature.2014.15103 http://www.nature.com/news/reprieve-for-men-y-chromosome-is-not-vanishing-1.15103 References 1. Bellott, D. W. et al. Nature 508, 494--499 (2014). Mammalian Y chromosomes retain widely expressed dosage-sensitive regulators Nature 508, 494--499 (24 April 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13206 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v508/n7497/full/nature13206.html 2. Cortez, D. et al. Nature 508, 488--493 (2014). Origins and functional evolution of Y chromosomes across mammals Nature 508, 488--493 (24 April 2014) doi:10.1038/nature13151 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v508/n7497/full/nature13151.html (*) Genetics: The vital Y chromosome Nature 508, 463--465 (24 April 2014) doi:10.1038/508463a http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v508/n7497/full/508463a.html Comparisons of Y-chromosome sequences in various mammals reveal abundant gene loss early in the chromosome's evolution but remarkable gene stability across the Y chromosomes of extant species. See Articles p.488 (2) & p.494 (1).
Views: 37493 Stefano Di Criscio
Visit our website for text version of this Definition and app download. http://www.medicaldictionaryapps.com Subjects: medical terminology, medical dictionary, medical dictionary free download, medical terminology made easy, medical terminology song
Views: 133 Medical Dictionary Online
7R_full This is Lecture 7R of the free online course Useful Genetics Part 2. All of the lectures are on YouTube in the Useful Genetics library. Register for the full course here: https://www.edx.org/course/useful-genetics-part-2-genes-genetic-ubcx-usegen-2x
Views: 3606 Useful Genetics
Sexual differentiation,SRY gene,testes-determining factor(TDF),Mullerian-inhibiting factor(MIF)
Views: 50 Manish Koshti
Sex Chromosome Structure Video Lecture of Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Chapter from Biology Class 12 Subject for HSC, CBSE & NEET. Watch Previous Videos of Chapter Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance:- 1) Sex Chromosomes - Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance - Biology Class 12 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=58QobrHT7Wg 2) Types of Chromosome - Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance - Biology Class 12 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0DuL1x3dTQE Watch Next Videos of Chapter Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance:- 1) Sex Determination in Humans - Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance - Biology Class 12 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dqVOWpX7R5I 2) Karyotype - Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance - Biology Class 12 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B1RT1PJQleM Access the Complete Playlist of Class 12 Biology:- http://gg.gg/biologyclass-12 Access the Complete Playlist of Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance:- http://gg.gg/Chromosomal-Basis-of-Inheritances Subscribe to Ekeeda Channel to access more videos:- http://gg.gg/Subscribe-Now #ChromosomalBasisofInheritance #Biologyclass12 #class12Biology #Biologyclass12th #Biologyforclass12 #EkeedaOnlineLectures #EkeedaVideoLectures #EkeedaVideoTutorial Thanks For Watching. You can follow and Like us on following social media. Website - http://ekeeda.com Parent Channel - https://www.youtube.com/c/ekeeda Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/ekeeda Twitter - https://twitter.com/Ekeeda_Video LinkedIn- https://www.linkedin.com/company-beta/13222723/ Instgram - https://www.instagram.com/ekeeda_/ Pinterest - https://in.pinterest.com/ekeedavideo You can reach us on [email protected] Happy Learning : )
Views: 239 Ekeeda
"Sexual differentiation in humans" is the process of development of sex differences in humans. It is defined as the development of phenotypic structures consequent to the action of hormones produced following gonadal determination. Sexual differentiation includes development of different genitalia and the internal genital tracts, breasts, body hair, and plays a role in gender identification. The development of sexual differences begins with the XY sex-determination system that is present in humans, and complex mechanisms are responsible for the development of the phenotypic differences between male and female humans from an undifferentiated zygote. Females have two X chromosomes, and males have a Y chromosome and an X chromosome. At an early stage in embryonic development, both sexes possess equivalent internal structures. These are the mesonephric ducts and paramesonephric ducts. The presence of the SRY gene on the Y chromosome causes the development of the testes in males, and the subsequent release of hormones which cause the paramesonephric ducts to regress. In females, the mesonephric ducts regress. Abnormal sexual development, and ambiguous genitalia, can be a result of genetic and hormonal factors. A baby’s sex is determined at the time of conception. When the baby is conceived, a chromosome from the sperm cell, either X or Y, fuses with the X chromosome in the egg cell, determining whether the baby will be genetically female or male . To be genetically female, one needs to be , whereas to be a genetic male, is needed. It is the Y chromosome that is essential for the development of the male reproductive organs, and with no Y chromosome, an embryo will develop into a female. This is because of the presence of the sex determining region of the Y chromosome, also known as the SRY gene. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual+differentiation+in+humans, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
Views: 2133 Wiz Science™
The development of the female reproductive system explained in a very simple way. If you are completely new to embryology and you want to understand it quickly, this should be the first video you watch: - https://youtu.be/l5gUARhXWTY Post any questions you have about the video below, I read all the comments and I reply to all messages I get on Facebook and Instagram. Like me on Facebook, I reply to every message: - https://www.facebook.com/M1NA55/ Follow me on Instagram for content that's not uploaded to Facebook: - @m1.nass for medical notes and direct messaging - @mi.nass SUMMARY FOR YOUR NOTES: - The key to sexual dimorphism is the Y chromosome which contains the testis determining gene called the SRY (sex determining region on Y) gene The SRY protein is the testis determining factor and under its influence male development occurs Gonads - The sex of the embryo is determined at the time of fertilisation, but the gonads do not acquire male or female morphological characteristics until the seventh week of development - The gonads appear initially as a pair of longitudinal ridges called genital ridges - Genital ridges are formed by proliferation of the epithelium and a condensation of underlying mesenchyme - Germ cells appear in the 6th week of development - Primordial germ cells originate in the epiblast, migrate through the primitive streak, and by the third week reside among endoderm cells in the wall of the yolk sac close to the allantois - During the 4th week they migrate by ameboid movement along the dorsal mesentery of the hindgut, arriving at the primitive gonads at the beginning of the 5th week, invading the genital ridges - While waiting for the germ cells to arrive, the genital ridge epithelium proliferates and penetrate the underlying mesenchyme where they form cords called the primitive sex cords. Ovary - In females with a XX chromosome and no Y chromosome, primitive sex cords differentiate into irregular cell clusters. - These clusters containing primitive germ cells are the medullary part of the ovary. Later they disappear and are replaced by a vascular stroma that forms the ovarian medulla. - The surface epithelium of the female gonad, unlike that of the male, continues to proliferate. - In the 7th week, it gives rise to a second generation of cords, cortical cords, which penetrate the underlying mesenchyme but remain close to the surface. - In the third month, these cords split into isolated cell clusters which continue to proliferate and begin to surround each oogonium with a layer of epithelial cells called follicular cells. - Together the oogonia and follicular cells constitute a primordial follicle Genital ducts - Initially both male and female embryos have 2 pairs of genital ducts: mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts and paramesonephric (Mullerian) ducts - The paramesonephric duct arises as a longitudinal growth of the epithelium on the anterolateral surface of the urogenital ridge - Cranially the duct opens into the abdominal cavity with a funnel like structure - Caudally it first runs lateral to the mesonephric duct from the opposite side - The two ducts are initially separated by a septum but later fuse to form the uterine canal. - The caudal tip of the combined ducts projects into the posterior wall of the urogenital sinus where it causes a small swelling, the paramesonephric tubercle. - The mesonephric ducts open into the urogenital sinus on either side of the Mullerian tubercle. - The paramesonephric ducts develop into the main genital ducts of the female - With descent of the ovary, first 2 parts develop into the uterine tube - The caudal parts fuse to form the uterine canal. - After the ducts fuse in the midline, a broad transverse pelvic fold is established (broad ligament of uterus) - The fused paramesonephric ducts give rise to the corpus and cervix of uterus - They are surrounded by a layer of mesenchyme that forms the muscular coat of the uterus, the myometrium and its peritoneal covering (perimetrium) V (YouTube won't allow for the full word to be used here -.-) - The solid tip of the paramesonephric ducts reaches the urogenital sinus and two solid parts grow out from the pelvic part of the sinus (sinoV bulbs) which proliferate and form a solid V plate. - By the 5th month the V outgrowth is entirely canalised - the expansions of the V around the cervix, fornicies, are paramesonephric origin. - Therefore the V has a dual origin ,the upper portion derived from uterine canal and lower portion derived from the urogenital sinus - The lumen of the V remains separated from that of the urogenital sinus by a thin tissue called the hymen which consists of epithelial lining of the sinus and a thin layer of V cells. It usually develops a small opening during perinatal life.
Views: 1129 Minass
The Sex Chromosomes The sex of an individual is determined by a pair of chromosomes designated as XX in a female and XY in a male. Ova contain only X chromosomes, but sperm contain either an X or a Y in a one-to-one ratio. At fertilization, there is an equal chance of an XX or an XY pair being formed. Sex-linked characteristics, such as hemophilia, arise because there are regions of the X chromosome without corresponding regions on the smaller Y chromosome.
Views: 116481 Daniel Izzo
http://facebook.com/ScienceReason ... Calacademy: Are Men More Evolved Than Women? Comparing the differences in the Y chromosomes in chimps and humans has created quite a buzz. --- Please SUBSCRIBE to Science & Reason: • http://www.youtube.com/Best0fScience • http://www.youtube.com/ScienceTV • http://www.youtube.com/FFreeThinker • http://www.youtube.com/RationalHumanism --- Chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes are remarkably divergent in structure and gene content The human Y chromosome began to evolve from an autosome hundreds of millions of years ago, acquiring a sex-determining function and undergoing a series of inversions that suppressed crossing over with the X chromosome. Little is known about the recent evolution of the Y chromosome because only the human Y chromosome has been fully sequenced. Prevailing theories hold that Y chromosomes evolve by gene loss, the pace of which slows over time, eventually leading to a paucity of genes, and stasis. These theories have been buttressed by partial sequence data from newly emergent plant and animal Y chromosomes, but they have not been tested in older, highly evolved Y chromosomes such as that of humans. Here we finished sequencing of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, achieving levels of accuracy and completion previously reached for the human MSY. By comparing the MSYs of the two species we show that they differ radically in sequence structure and gene content, indicating rapid evolution during the past six million years. The chimpanzee MSY contains twice as many massive palindromes as the human MSY, yet it has lost large fractions of the MSY protein-coding genes and gene families present in the last common ancestor. We suggest that the extraordinary divergence of the chimpanzee and human MSYs was driven by four synergistic factors: the prominent role of the MSY in sperm production, 'genetic hitchhiking' effects in the absence of meiotic crossing over, frequent ectopic recombination within the MSY, and species differences in mating behaviour. Although genetic decay may be the principal dynamic in the evolution of newly emergent Y chromosomes, wholesale renovation is the paramount theme in the continuing evolution of chimpanzee, human and perhaps other older MSYs. • http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7280/full/nature08700.html --- Science in Action strives to make science accessible for everyone and discuss its relevance in our everyday lives. We bring you science news through media screens and live chats on the museum floor, this Science Today website, podcasts, and monthly Nightlife programming. We gather and disseminate content through our partners, local programs, other media and Academy staff. And you. Please feel free to comment and let us know what's important to you in the science world. • http://www.calacademy.org/sciencetoday/ .
Views: 19000 ScienceMagazine
We discuss inter-sex, trans issues, and transphobia. The full show is over 2 hours so I have broken it up into parts. See also: Bearing’s Harmfully Ignorant “Two Genders” Nonsense http://www.patheos.com/blogs/barrierbreaker/bearings-jaw-dropping-harmful-ignorance-two-genders/ Hosted by: kristi Winters - https://www.youtube.com/user/drkmwinters Guests: Michea B https://www.youtube.com/user/TheMikennaM demotivatoropinion https://www.youtube.com/user/demotivatoropinion 'Genetic Components of Sex and Gender Humans are born with 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. The X and Y chromosomes determine a person’s sex. Most women are 46XX and most men are 46XY. Research suggests, however, that in a few births per thousand some individuals will be born with a single sex chromosome (45X or 45Y) (sex monosomies) and some with three or more sex chromosomes (47XXX, 47XYY or 47XXY, etc.) (sex polysomies). In addition, some males are born 46XX due to the translocation of a tiny section of the sex determining region of the Y chromosome. Similarly some females are also born 46XY due to mutations in the Y chromosome. Clearly, there are not only females who are XX and males who are XY, but rather, there is a range of chromosome complements, hormone balances, and phenotypic variations that determine sex. The biological differences between men and women result from two processes: sex determination and differentiation.(3) The biological process of sex determination controls whether the male or female sexual differentiation pathway will be followed. The process of biological sex differentiation (development of a given sex) involves many genetically regulated, hierarchical developmental steps. More than 95% of the Y chromosome is male-specific (4) and a single copy of the Y chromosome is able to induce testicular differentiation of the embryonic gonad. The Y chromosome acts as a dominant inducer of male phenotype and individuals having four X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (49XXXXY) are phenotypically male. (5) When a Y chromosome is present, early embryonic testes develop around the 10th week of pregnancy. In the absence of both a Y chromosome and the influence of a testis-determining factor (TDF), ovaries develop. Gender, typically described in terms of masculinity and femininity, is a social construction that varies across different cultures and over time.' http://www.who.int/genomics/gender/en/index1.html Music in order of appearance Intro Music: Just A Blip by Andy G. Cohen is licensed under a Attribution License. Based on a work at https://andyg.co/hen Also available at: http://freemusicarchive.org/music/Andy_G_Cohen/Through_The_Lens/Andy_G_Cohen_-_Just_A_Blip AcidJazz by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Backed Vibes Clean by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.
Views: 739 Michael Rowlands
Testis and Epididymis - Male Reproductive Anatomy Part 1 LIKE US ON FACEBOOK : fb.me/Medsimplified BUY USING AFFILIATE LINKS : AMAZON US--- https://goo.gl/XSJtTx AMAZON India http://goo.gl/QsUhku FLIPKART http://fkrt.it/Wiv8RNNNNN FLIPKART MOBILE APP http://fkrt.it/Wiv8RNNNNN Subscribe here - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOmrniWfKi-uCD6Oh6fqhgw The testis is the male gland important for both reproductive and endocrine functions. Initially, it begins as an undifferentiated gonad in the retroperitoneal area. Transcription of the SRY gene (testis-determining factor region) on the Y chromosome ultimately leads to sex differentiation. Without the SRY gene, the gonad would develop into an ovary. As the fetus develops, the functioning testis produces the male hormone testosterone to allow development of male genitalia. Over the last 3 months of gestation, the testis must course its way down from its original retroperitoneal position to its final destination in the scrotum. During its journey it must pass through the peritoneum, abdominal wall via the inguinal canal, and into the scrotal pouch. The testis is a paired, ovoid male reproductive organ that sits in the scrotum, separated from its mate by a scrotal septum. Described by some as being shaped and sized like a large olive or small plum, the average volume of the adult testis is approximately 25 mL. Typically, it measures 3.5-5 cm in length by 2.5-3 cm in both width by 3cm in depth The tunica vaginalis testis (a remnant of the processus vaginalis) envelopes the testis in a double layer, except at the superior and posterior borders where the spermatic cord and epididymis adhere to the testes. The visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis testis is closely applied to the testis, epididymis, and ductus deferens. On the posterolateral surface of the testis, this layer invests a slit-like recess between the body of the epididymis and the testis that is called the sinus of epididymis. The parietal layer of tunica vaginalis is adjacent to the internal spermatic fascia, is more extensive, and extends superiorly into the distal part of the spermatic cord. Deep to the tunica vaginalis, the tunica albuginea is a tough, fibrous outer covering of the testis. On the posterior surface, it is reflected inwardly to form an incomplete vertical septum called the mediastinum testis. The mediastinum testis extends from the superior to near the inferior portion of the gland. It narrows in width as it travels inferiorly. Anteriorly and laterally, numerous imperfect septa are given off, which radiate to the glands surface and are attached to the tunica albuginea. These divide the interior of the testis into numerous, cone-shaped spaces that have a wide base at the gland’s surface and narrow as they converge to the mediastinum. In these spaces, the numerous lobules of glandular structures (the minute but long and highly coiled seminiferous tubules) are housed. The mediastinum supports the ducts and vessels as they pass to and from the glandular substance. The seminiferous tubules are lined with germ cells that produce sperm and nutrient fluid. These tubules empty their contents into a network of anastomosing ducts, which ultimately empties into the epididymis. he epididymis is a comma shaped, elongated structure composed of a single, fine tubular structure estimated up to 6 meters (approximately 20 feet) in length. This tube highly convoluted and tightly compressed (average size of approximately 5 cm) to the point of appearing solid. Located on the posterior border of the testis, it is composed of 3 parts, including the head (caput), body (corpora), and tail (cauda). The epididymal head overhangs the upper pole of the testis, receives the seminal fluid from the ducts of the testis (which pierce the upper portion of the mediastinum), then allows the passage of the sperm into the distal portion of the epididymis. Due to its length, the epididymal duct allows space for storage and maturation of sperm. Progressively tapering in width, the narrow tail continues as the ductus deferens Subscribe here - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOmrniWfKi-uCD6Oh6fqhgw Watch Again : https://youtu.be/ImetvbMXgUA -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- CHECK OUT NEWEST VIDEO: "Nucleic acids - DNA and RNA structure " https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lZRAShqft0 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 166770 MEDSimplified
What does Sex-Determining Region Y Protein mean in English?
Views: 45 botcaster inc. bot
Let's talk about the variety of ways organisms reproduce -- specifically , how the gametic sex of an individual is determined. This is a description of a couple of figures from this paper: Bachtrog D, Mank JE, Peichel CL, Kirkpatrick M, Otto SP, Ashman TL, Hahn MW, Kitano J, Mayrose I, Ming R, Perrin N, Ross L, Valenzuela N, Vamosi JC (2014) Sex determination: why so many ways of doing it? PLoS Biol. 12(7):e1001899. I'm also putting these images (which you can get directly from the paper above) on Pharyngula: https://freethoughtblogs.com/pharyngula/2017/10/29/a-little-video-about-sex-determination/ If you're teaching genetics, these should prove useful.
Views: 1516 PZ Myers
Watch on LabRoots at http://labroots.com/webcast/id/458 There is tremendous sexual dimorphism in human genetic disease susceptibility, progression, and drug response. It is thus alarming that most genome-wide association studies exclude the most sexually dimorphic regions of our genome, the sex chromosomes. An essential component of incorporating the X and Y into studies of human disease, with their unique inheritance patterns, and response to population history and selection, is to understand their evolutionary history. Ancestrally, both the X and Y chromosomes shared identical gene content, but throughout our evolutionary history the Y chromosome has lost over 90% of the gene content it once shared with the X. The loss of Y-linked sequence not only affects the fate of the Y chromosome, but it also modulates the evolution and expression of X-linked genes. XX humans inactivate gene expression on one of their X chromosomes, but not completely; 15% of genes escape X-inactivation, while another 10% escape X-inactivation in only a subset of individuals. Analyzing patterns of heterogeneous X-inactivation across individual cell lines, we show that genes on the X chromosome are silenced in response to gene loss on the Y. Variation in these patterns of silencing are important for understanding the etiology of, and variation in, X-linked diseases. Learning Objectives: 1. Explain the importance of including the human X and Y chromosomes in clinical and genetic analysis. 2. Appreciate the role of the sex chromosomes in human health and disease 3. Discuss the implications of human Y chromosome variation.
Views: 541 LabRoots
The development of the male reproductive system explained in a very simple way. In this video we focus on the embryological development of the testis. In a future video we will discuss development of the external genitalia (both males and females), and the development of the ovaries, and uterus. CORRECTION @ 13:36: The paramesonephric duct does not become the ovaries. It becomes the uterus and fallopian tubes. Sorry! If you are completely new to embryology, and you have no idea whats going on, let this be the first video you watch: → https://youtu.be/l5gUARhXWTY The development of the kidney and gonads are very closely linked. I recommend you watch the embryology of the kidney video first to get the most out of the above video: → https://youtu.be/81yCpyF2VhQ A photo of the whiteboard for your notes found here: → https://www.facebook.com/M1NA55/ I recommend watching this animation after watching the above video: → https://youtu.be/MureNA-RSZM SUMMARY OF THE VIDEO FOR YOUR NOTES: Sex differentiation is complex and involves many genes, e.g. Sex differentiating Region on the Y chromosome (SRY). The sex of the embryo is determined genetically at the time of fertilisation, but the gonads aren't either male or female until the 7th week of development. The gonads appear as a pair of longitudinal ridges (the genital or gonadal ridges), which are formed by the proliferation of the epithelium of the underlying mesenchyme (nephrogenic cord). Testis are derived from the intermediate mesoderm, and from germ cells that migrate from the epiblast. The germ cells appear in the 6th week. They migrate through the primitive streak from the epiblast, by ameboid movement (explained in video) finally reach the gonadal ridge via the dorsal mesentery of the hindgut. if they fail to reach the gonadal ridges, the gonads will not be developed. The underlying mesenchyme proliferates and forms the primitive sex cords and it is impossible to differentiate between male and female at this point (thus the indifferent gonad). Under the influence of SRY which encodes the testis-determining-factor, the primitive sex cords continue to proliferate and penetrate deep into the medulla to form the testis (or medullary cords). Toward the hilum, the cords break up into a network of cell strands that later give rise to the rete testis. Additional development sees the appearance of the tunica albuginea. Leydig and Sertoli cells are also differentiating at this time. Leydig cells begin to produce testosterone and the testis is able to influence sexual differentiation of the genital ducts and the external genitalia (penis). Testis cords remain solid until puberty, when they acquire a lumen, thus forming the seminiferous tubules. Once canalised, they join the rete testis tubules which in turn enter the ductus efferentes (efferent ductules). These ductules link the rete testis and the mesonephric duct which becomes the ductus deferens.
Views: 67659 Minass
Duke researchers recently mapped the evolutionary turning point that transformed the pathogenic Cryptococcus fungus from an organism with thousands of sexes to only two. They found that during evolution, a reshuffling of DNA known as translocation brought together separate chunks of sex-determining genes onto a single chromosome, essentially mimicking the human X or Y chromosome. Surprisingly, these translocations occurred at the chromosome’s centromeres, regions so dense that they were once thought to suppress recombination. http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.2002527
Views: 3303 Duke University
The development of the reproductive systems begins soon after fertilization of the egg, with primordial gonads beginning to develop approximately one month after conception. Reproductive development continues in utero, but there is little change in the reproductive system between infancy and puberty. Development of the Sexual Organs in the Embryo and Fetus Females are considered the “fundamental” sex—that is, without much chemical prompting, all fertilized eggs would develop into females. To become a male, an individual must be exposed to the cascade of factors initiated by a single gene on the male Y chromosome. This is called the SRY (Sex-determining Region of the Y chromosome). Because females do not have a Y chromosome, they do not have the SRY gene. Without a functional SRY gene, an individual will be female. In both male and female embryos, the same group of cells has the potential to develop into either the male or female gonads; this tissue is considered bipotential. The SRY gene actively recruits other genes that begin to develop the testes, and suppresses genes that are important in female development. As part of this SRY-prompted cascade, germ cells in the bipotential gonads differentiate into spermatogonia. Without SRY, different genes are expressed, oogonia form, and primordial follicles develop in the primitive ovary. Soon after the formation of the testis, the Leydig cells begin to secrete testosterone. Testosterone can influence tissues that are bipotential to become male reproductive structures. For example, with exposure to testosterone, cells that could become either the glans penis or the glans clitoris form the glans penis. Without testosterone, these same cells differentiate into the clitoris. Not all tissues in the reproductive tract are bipotential. The internal reproductive structures (for example the uterus, uterine tubes, and part of the vagina in females; and the epididymis, ductus deferens, and seminal vesicles in males) form from one of two rudimentary duct systems in the embryo. For proper reproductive function in the adult, one set of these ducts must develop properly, and the other must degrade. In males, secretions from sustentacular cells trigger a degradation of the female duct, called the Müllerian duct. At the same time, testosterone secretion stimulates growth of the male tract, the Wolffian duct. Without such sustentacular cell secretion, the Müllerian duct will develop; without testosterone, the Wolffian duct will degrade. Thus, the developing offspring will be female. For more information and a figure of differentiation of the gonads, seek additional content on fetal development. Further Sexual Development Occurs at Puberty Puberty is the stage of development at which individuals become sexually mature. Though the outcomes of puberty for boys and girls are very different, the hormonal control of the process is very similar. In addition, though the timing of these events varies between individuals, the sequence of changes that occur is predictable for male and female adolescents. As shown in the image below, a concerted release of hormones from the hypothalamus (GnRH), the anterior pituitary (LH and FSH), and the gonads (either testosterone or estrogen) is responsible for the maturation of the reproductive systems and the development of secondary sex characteristics, which are physical changes that serve auxiliary roles in reproduction. The first changes begin around the age of eight or nine when the production of LH becomes detectable. The release of LH occurs primarily at night during sleep and precedes the physical changes of puberty by several years. In pre-pubertal children, the sensitivity of the negative feedback system in the hypothalamus and pituitary is very high. This means that very low concentrations of androgens or estrogens will negatively feed back onto the hypothalamus and pituitary, keeping the production of GnRH, LH, and FSH low. As an individual approaches puberty, two changes in sensitivity occur. The first is a decrease of sensitivity in the hypothalamus and pituitary to negative feedback, meaning that it takes increasingly larger development, reproductive system, female reproductive system and early development, female reproductive system development ppt, female reproductive system development during puberty, female reproductive system egg development, medical education, sex chromosome, embryology of sex, male and female sex, ovarian medulla, development of female reproductive system, physiology, development of male and female reproductive system, development of male and female reproductive system ppt, subscriber my channel for more videos https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbo6j35Wh63ZOpBBxbpCcQQ join us at blogger https://mixture07.blogspot.com join us at fcebook https://www.facebook.com/mixture007 join us at google+ https://plus.google.com/u/0/110084626301403822233
Views: 2178 Researchers
Humans exhibit XX-XY, chromosomal mechanism of sex determination. The males are Heteromorphic with XY sex pair whereas the females are Homomorphic with XX sex pair. The males show digamety whereas the females exhibit monogamety. The X carrying spermatozoa are Gynosperms whereas the Y carrying spermatozoa are Androsperms. In humans there is syngametic mechanism of sex determination, it means that sex is determined in humans at the time of fertilization. If Androsperm fertilizes the ovum, the resulting offspring would be male: (22A + Y) * (22A + X) = (44A + XY) Androsperm Ovum Male If a Gynosperm fertilizes the ovum the resulting offspring would be of female sex. (22A + X) * (22A + X) = (44A + XX) gynosperm Ovum Female Sex Chromosomes are also known as Allosomes. The Y chromosome is also known as Androsome. The genes present on the non-homologous region of the Y chromosome are known as Holandric Genes. TDF present on the SRY region is a Holandric gene. Porcupine skin gene in humans is also a Holandric gene. https://youtu.be/127TU3LDURI
Views: 367 MUDABIRS BIOLOGY CLUB
Learn more about your DNA by going to: https://www.23andme.com/ASAP Subscribe for weekly videos: http://bit.ly/asapsci Created by: Mitchell Moffit and Gregory Brown Written by: Amanda Edward, Rachel Salt, Greg Brown & Mitch Moffit Illustrated by: Max Simmons Edited by: Sel Ghebrehiwot FOLLOW US! Instagram and Twitter: @whalewatchmeplz and @mitchellmoffit Clickable: http://bit.ly/16F1jeC and http://bit.ly/15J7ube AsapINSTAGRAM: https://instagram.com/asapscience/ Facebook: http://facebook.com/AsapSCIENCE Twitter: http://twitter.com/AsapSCIENCE Tumblr: http://asapscience.tumblr.com SNAPCHAT US 'whalewatchmeplz' and 'pixelmitch' Created by Mitchell Moffit (twitter @mitchellmoffit) and Gregory Brown (twitter @whalewatchmeplz). Send us stuff! ASAPSCIENCE INC. P.O. Box 93, Toronto P Toronto, ON, M5S2S6 Further Reading/References: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629616303666?via%3Dihub https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/babies-paternal-resemblance/ https://www.nature.com/articles/srep45885 https://www.23andme.com/en-ca/gen101/origins/ http://anthro.palomar.edu/biobasis/bio_4.htm https://www.alnmag.com/news/2013/08/dad%E2%80%99s-genes-build-placentas http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2013/08/dad-s-genes-build-placentas-study-shows https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3696791/ https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/classical-genetics/sex-linkage-non-nuclear-chromosomal-mutations/a/sex-linkage-sex-determination-and-x-inactivation http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/basics/observable/ http://www.genesinlife.org/genetics-101/how-does-genetics-work/main-inheritance-patterns https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5308812/ http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v40/n11/abs/ng.228.html http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v40/n11/abs/ng.255.html https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/classical-genetics/sex-linkage-non-nuclear-chromosomal-mutations/a/x-inactivation https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/turner-syndrome http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/lab3/crossovr.html https://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/principle-of-independent-assortment-law-of-independent-302 http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2015/03/03/genetically-more-like-dad/#.WVejxITythE http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v47/n4/full/ng.3222.html https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150302123253.htm https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/like-mother-like-daughter-the-science-says-so-too/ http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/49005/ http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/do-you-share-more-genes-your-mother-or-your-father/ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167488913001092 http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(12)01106-3?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0092867412011063%3Fshowall%3Dtrue http://www.mitocanada.org/about-mitochondrial-disease/how-is-mitochondrial-disease-inherited-2/ http://www.mitoaction.org/mito-faq https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9b7w2wJu7Eo https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/prader-willi-syndrome http://www.fpwr.ca/about-prader-willi-syndrome/ https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/angelman-syndrome Mom vs Dad Genetic Traits inherited Characteristics Y Chromosome X Chromosome Mitochondrial DNA Maternal Linked Disease Why Am I going Bald Male Colour Blindness Do babies look more like their fathers is intelligence inherited is depression inherited is depression genetic genetic facial features how DNA is inherited how ancestry works
Views: 1426740 AsapSCIENCE
Sexual Differentiation Lesson Visit our website: http://www.sliderbase.com/ Free PowerPoint Presentations for teaching and learning Adventures in Biology... Last Week in…. We discussed the different forms of Reproduction We discussed the costs/benefits of each form This week we’ll discuss sexual differentiation - how sexually reproducing organisms develop into separate sexes. Specifically, as it applies to us humans The Y chromosome contains a gene known as the SRY (sex determining region on the Y chromosome) gene. This gene is responsible for the development of testes But what about the factor? Everyone develops an area known as the urogenital ridge Unless testes develop, this area will naturally develop into the female reproductive system In other words, we are all female by default BUT…how does this happen?? When testes form they release 2 hormones - testosterone & MIS (mullerian inhibiting substance) The testosterone causes the male reproductive system to develop MIS causes the ducts of the female system to degenerate
Views: 358 SliderBase
We discuss inter-sex, trans issues, and transphobia. The full show is over 2 hours so I have broken it up into parts. See also: Bearing’s Harmfully Ignorant “Two Genders” Nonsense http://www.patheos.com/blogs/barrierbreaker/bearings-jaw-dropping-harmful-ignorance-two-genders/ Guests: Michea B https://www.youtube.com/user/TheMikennaM demotivatoropinion https://www.youtube.com/user/demotivatoropinion Michael Rowlands https://www.youtube.com/user/MrTheMusicManMichael 'Genetic Components of Sex and Gender Humans are born with 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. The X and Y chromosomes determine a person’s sex. Most women are 46XX and most men are 46XY. Research suggests, however, that in a few births per thousand some individuals will be born with a single sex chromosome (45X or 45Y) (sex monosomies) and some with three or more sex chromosomes (47XXX, 47XYY or 47XXY, etc.) (sex polysomies). In addition, some males are born 46XX due to the translocation of a tiny section of the sex determining region of the Y chromosome. Similarly some females are also born 46XY due to mutations in the Y chromosome. Clearly, there are not only females who are XX and males who are XY, but rather, there is a range of chromosome complements, hormone balances, and phenotypic variations that determine sex. The biological differences between men and women result from two processes: sex determination and differentiation.(3) The biological process of sex determination controls whether the male or female sexual differentiation pathway will be followed. The process of biological sex differentiation (development of a given sex) involves many genetically regulated, hierarchical developmental steps. More than 95% of the Y chromosome is male-specific (4) and a single copy of the Y chromosome is able to induce testicular differentiation of the embryonic gonad. The Y chromosome acts as a dominant inducer of male phenotype and individuals having four X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (49XXXXY) are phenotypically male. (5) When a Y chromosome is present, early embryonic testes develop around the 10th week of pregnancy. In the absence of both a Y chromosome and the influence of a testis-determining factor (TDF), ovaries develop. Gender, typically described in terms of masculinity and femininity, is a social construction that varies across different cultures and over time.' http://www.who.int/genomics/gender/en/index1.html Music in order of appearance Intro Music: Just A Blip by Andy G. Cohen is licensed under a Attribution License. Based on a work at https://andyg.co/hen Also available at: http://freemusicarchive.org/music/Andy_G_Cohen/Through_The_Lens/Andy_G_Cohen_-_Just_A_Blip AcidJazz by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Backed Vibes Clean by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. My subscribers are awesome - you're awesome too so you should subscribe as well! Join my monthly seminar by supporting me on Patreon https://www.patreon.com/drkmwinters My YouTube Facebook page Kristi Winters https://www.facebook.com/youtubedrkmwinters/ Follow me on Twitter too! https://twitter.com/KWintie
Views: 30 Winters' Snowflakes
Color Blindness explained in a simple manner. Principles of Inheritance and Variation, Botany XII XY Method (XX-XY): It occurs in mammals and many insects with females having homomorphic XX sex chromosomes and males possessing heteromorphic XY-chromosomes. Y is shorter, may be hooked (as in Drosophila). XY chromosomes synapse during zygotene. They have two parts, homologous and differential. Homologous regions of the two take part in synapsis. They carry similar genes, called X-Y linked genes, e.g., Xeroderma pigmentosum, epidermolysis bullosa. The differential or non-homologous region of Y-chromosome is mostly heterochromatic. The euchromatic part of differential region of this chromosome has holandric genes like TDF (testis determining factor) or SRY (sex determining region), ZFY (sperm formation), Pϕ2V, hypertrichosis (excessive hairiness) of pinna, porcupine skin, keratoderma dissipatum (thickened skin of extremities) and webbed toes. Holandric genes are transferred directly from father to son. Genes present of differential region of X-chromosome also find expression in males (sex-linked traits) whether they are recessive or dominant because males are hemizygous for these genes, e.g., red-green colour blindness, haemophilia. Male is heterogametic (A + Y, A + X, in human beings 22 + Y and 22 + X) while female is homogametic (A + X, in human beings 22 + X). The two types of male gametes or sperms are called androsperms (22 + Y) and gynosperms (22 + X). XY sex determination is found in many bryophytes (females A + X, males A + Y) and angiosperms Melandrium (Lychnis), Coccinia, Salix, Elodea, etc. Sex is decided at the time of fertilization. It is known as syngametic sex determination. Red-Green Colour Blindness/ Colour Blindness/ Daltonism (Horner, 1876): It is a recessive sex-linked defect in which human beings are unable to distinguish red and green colours. For more such resources go to https://goo.gl/Eh96EY Website: https://www.learnpedia.in/
Views: 5332 Learnpedia
We discuss the lack of skepticism in parts of the so-called 'skeptic' community. The full show is over 2 hours so I have broken it up into parts. See also: Bearing’s Harmfully Ignorant “Two Genders” Nonsense http://www.patheos.com/blogs/barrierbreaker/bearings-jaw-dropping-harmful-ignorance-two-genders/ Hosted by Kristi Winters https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3TbT_taTdB5_pxcHnNNHAg Guests: Michea B https://www.youtube.com/user/TheMikennaM demotivatoropinion https://www.youtube.com/user/demotivatoropinion 'Genetic Components of Sex and Gender Humans are born with 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. The X and Y chromosomes determine a person’s sex. Most women are 46XX and most men are 46XY. Research suggests, however, that in a few births per thousand some individuals will be born with a single sex chromosome (45X or 45Y) (sex monosomies) and some with three or more sex chromosomes (47XXX, 47XYY or 47XXY, etc.) (sex polysomies). In addition, some males are born 46XX due to the translocation of a tiny section of the sex determining region of the Y chromosome. Similarly some females are also born 46XY due to mutations in the Y chromosome. Clearly, there are not only females who are XX and males who are XY, but rather, there is a range of chromosome complements, hormone balances, and phenotypic variations that determine sex. The biological differences between men and women result from two processes: sex determination and differentiation.(3) The biological process of sex determination controls whether the male or female sexual differentiation pathway will be followed. The process of biological sex differentiation (development of a given sex) involves many genetically regulated, hierarchical developmental steps. More than 95% of the Y chromosome is male-specific (4) and a single copy of the Y chromosome is able to induce testicular differentiation of the embryonic gonad. The Y chromosome acts as a dominant inducer of male phenotype and individuals having four X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (49XXXXY) are phenotypically male. (5) When a Y chromosome is present, early embryonic testes develop around the 10th week of pregnancy. In the absence of both a Y chromosome and the influence of a testis-determining factor (TDF), ovaries develop. Gender, typically described in terms of masculinity and femininity, is a social construction that varies across different cultures and over time.' http://www.who.int/genomics/gender/en/index1.html Music in order of appearance Backed Vibes Clean by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. If I Can't Dance It's Not My Revolution by Quantum Jazz is licensed under a Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 International License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://www.jamendo.com/en/list/a104389/end-of-line As I Figure by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. My twitter - https://twitter.com/Music_Man_Mike My patreon (for support!) - https://www.patreon.com/Music_Man_Mike
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SRY SRY: Sex region Y, a region on the Y chromosome that determines the sex of the individual. SRY is necessary and sufficient for male sex determination. It is the testis-determining factor. Mutations in SRY give rise to XY females with gonadal dysgenesis who appear to be normal females at birth, but at puberty do not develop secondary sexual characteristics (breasts, etc.), do not menstruate, and have streak (fibrous) gonads without eggs. There is a high incidence of neoplasia (gonadoblastoma and germinoma) in the streak gonads. Translocation (transfer) of the part of the Y chromosome containing SRY to the X chromosome results in XX males -- individuals who have XX sex chromosomes but appear male. SRY resides in chromosome band Yp11.3 and encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the high mobility group (HMG)-box family of DNA binding proteins. How to pronounce SRY definition of SRY audio dictionary How to say SRY What is the meaning of SRY Pronounce SRY Medical dictionary Medical definition of SRY
Views: 176 Medical Dictionary